An efficient finite element procedure has been developed for the analysis of quenching problems involving nonisothermal phase changes. The finite element analysis includes temperature dependent material properties, a mixed hardening rule to describe the material constitutive model, and the incorporation of time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams. The procedure is applied to the simulation of quenching of steel cylinders and an aluminum connector with temperature-dependent convection boundary conditions. First, the stress analysis of the quenching of an infinite cylinder is carried out and the predicted distributions of temperature and stresses are compared with an available numerical solution to validate the accuracy of the present formulation and procedure. To demonstrate the predictive capability and practical applicability of the developed procedure, the simulation of quenching of finite cylinders of various length-to-diameter ratios and of a square bar are presented. The role of edge effects and specimen geometry on the residual stress distribution is analyzed. In addition, the microstructures developed during the quenching of 1080 carbon steel cylinders are predicted using TTT diagram incorporated in the analysis. The final example addresses the simulation of age hardening in spray quenched 2024 aluminum connector. The example problems are directly related to many practical applications, such as the heat-treatment of solid piston pins used in automotive engines and the spray quenching of aluminum connector. They also illustrate the wide range of material transformations which can be modeled using the present finite element procedure.

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