The conditions leading to onset of thermal convection in a horizontal porous layer are determined analytically using the method of linear stability of small disturbances. The lower boundary is treated as a rigid surface and the upper boundary as a free surface. The critical internal and external Rayleigh numbers are determined for both stabilizing and destabilizing boundary temperatures. The predicted critical external Rayleigh number in the limit of no heat generation is in agreement with the critical number predicted for a porous medium heated from below.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.