Six diesel fuels, varying in percent hydrogen from 12.36 to 14.38 percent and in cetane number from 37.5 to 55.5, were evaluated for percent opacity as a function of fuel-air ratio—both at 800 and 1000 rpm—in a Waukesha CFR diesel engine. In both cases, at a given fuel-air ratio, the smoke emissions (measured by percent opacity) decreased with increasing percent hydrogen in the fuel. In these studies, percent hydrogen was both a satisfactory and a unique parameter, since neither cetane number nor volatility of the various fuels could be correlated with smoke emissions. In these studies, percent hydrogen is apparently the essential index of diesel fuel quality for satisfactory smoke emissions.

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