A generalized thermodynamic model is developed to describe combined cooling, heating, and power generating systems. This model is based on reversible power generation and refrigeration devices with practical, irreversible heat exchanger processes. It provides information on a system’s performance and allows easy comparisons among different systems at different loading conditions. Using both the first and second laws as well as the carbon dioxide production rate allows one to make a first-order system assessment of its energy usage and environment impact. The consistency of the exergy destruction rate and the first law performance ensures that the thermodynamic system boundaries are correctly and completely defined. The importance of the total thermal load to the required power ratio (HLRP) as a scaling parameter is demonstrated. A number of trends for limited conditions can be delineated even though the reported results confirmed that generalized trends are not identifiable because of the systems’ complexities. The results demonstrate that the combined vapor compression∕absorption refrigeration has higher first law utilization factors and lower carbon dioxide production rate for systems with high refrigeration to total thermal load ratios for all HLRP values. Fuel cell systems outperform engine systems for large refrigeration load applications. An illustration of combining these results to an economic analysis is presented.
Selection of Distributed Power-Generating Systems Based on Electric, Heating, and Cooling Loads
Kowalski, G. J., and Zenouzi, M. (March 8, 2006). "Selection of Distributed Power-Generating Systems Based on Electric, Heating, and Cooling Loads." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. September 2006; 128(3): 168–178. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2213275
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