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Keywords: solders
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Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research-Article
J. Electron. Packag. September 2024, 146(3): 031008.
Paper No: EP-23-1044
Published Online: March 13, 2024
... solders are sparse, especially regarding performance at cold temperatures. We report Garofalo creep data for 83Pb/10Sb/5Sn/2Ag (Indalloy 236) and 91.5Sn/8.5Sb (Indalloy 264). Indalloy 236 exhibits an activation energy of 54.5 kJ/mol, n = 4.5, and α = 0.043 while Indalloy 264 exhibits an activation energy...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2011, 133(4): 041014.
Published Online: December 21, 2011
...-copper system with a gold-tin solder bond layer. The results obtained are likely to be useful in interfacial stress evaluation and physical design of bimaterial assemblies used in microelectronics and photonics applications. Consider a plate of unit thickness subjected to unit shear stress...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2011, 133(4): 041013.
Published Online: December 19, 2011
...Etienne L. Bonnaud Reliable drop test simulations of electronic packages require reliable material characterization of solder joints. Mechanical properties of lead-free solder were here experimentally investigated for both monotonic and cyclic loading at different strain rates. With regards...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2011, 133(4): 041007.
Published Online: December 9, 2011
... with the peak reflow temperature of lead-free (Pb-free) solders used in electronic industries. The Ag foil is quite soft and ductile. It can deform to mate with the Au surface on alumina. Thus, only 1000 psi of static pressure is needed to bring Ag atoms and Au atoms within atomic distance on the interface. Ag...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Technical Briefs
J. Electron. Packag. December 2011, 133(4): 044501.
Published Online: November 17, 2011
...Yongchang Lee; Cemal Basaran Demand for long-term reliability of electronic packaging has lead to a large number of studies on viscoplastic behavior of solder alloys. Various creep models for solder alloys have been proposed. They range from purely empirical to mechanism based models where...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. September 2011, 133(3): 031009.
Published Online: September 23, 2011
...B. L. Boyce; L. N. Brewer; M. K. Neilsen; M. J. Perricone The present study examines the thermomechanical strain-rate sensitivity of eutectic 63Sn–37Pb solder over a broad range of strain-rates from 0.0002 s –1 to 200 s –1 , thus encompassing failure events between 1 h and 1 ms, at temperatures...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. September 2011, 133(3): 031004.
Published Online: September 14, 2011
...Tong An; Fei Qin The significant difference between failure modes of lead-containing and lead-free solder joints under drop impact loading remains to be not well understood. In this paper, we propose a feasible finite element approach to model the cracking behavior of solder joints under drop...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. September 2011, 133(3): 031007.
Published Online: September 14, 2011
...Brian D. Roggeman; Venkatesh Raghavan; Peter Borgesen The introduction of less compliant lead free solders together with weaker and more brittle laminate materials has led to major concerns with respect to the resistance of the latter to pad cratering. For purposes of laminate selection as well...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. September 2011, 133(3): 031002.
Published Online: September 14, 2011
...Lihua Liang; Yuanxiang Zhang; Yong Liu Electromigration (EM) in solder joints under high current density has become a critical reliability issue for the future high density microelectronic packaging. This paper presents atomic density redistribution algorithm for predicting electromigration induced...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. June 2011, 133(2): 021001.
Published Online: June 22, 2011
...M. Meilunas; P. Borgesen The mandated switch of the overwhelming part of microelectronics assembly to lead-free soldering has left the manufacturers of many high reliability products, which are still exempt from the requirement to change, with a choice between imperfect alternatives. One...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2010, 132(4): 041011.
Published Online: December 8, 2010
... in each element. The elements that have reached the damage threshold are removed from the structure to initiate and propagate fatigue crack. This successive initiation approach is used to model crack initiation and propagation in Pb-free solder material under thermomechanical loading. A case study...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2010, 132(4): 041013.
Published Online: December 8, 2010
...Brett Fennell; Sangil Lee; Daniel F. Baldwin Conventional flip chip on board processing involves four major steps: flux application, solder reflow, underfill flow, and underfill cure. The latter two steps are particularly time consuming. To address this issue, a new flip chip process has been...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2010, 132(4): 041010.
Published Online: December 3, 2010
... investigates the effects of creep strain on the difference of fatigue life due to the different strain rate in the tensile and compression regions. The creep strain of the lead-free solder Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu subjected to a cyclic loading was investigated using stepped ramp wave loading. The experimental results...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2010, 132(4): 041003.
Published Online: November 23, 2010
...Ken-ichi Ohguchi; Katsuhiko Sasaki We previously proposed an elastic-plastic-creep model to estimate the fatigue strength of lead-free solder joints subjected to cyclic thermal loading. The proposed model requires detailed experimental data regarding the time-independent plastic strain and the time...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. December 2010, 132(4): 041001.
Published Online: November 19, 2010
...K. N. Prabhu; G. Kumar The effects of substrate material, substrate surface roughness, and operating temperature on the wetting behavior of Sn–37Pb, Sn–3.5Ag, and Sn–9Zn eutectic solders on metallic substrates were investigated. Solder spreading kinetics was successfully represented...
Journal Articles
Publisher: ASME
Article Type: Research Papers
J. Electron. Packag. September 2010, 132(3): 031008.
Published Online: September 9, 2010
... expansion (CTE) and, thus, also between in-plane and out-of-plane stresses. Another critical concern is the degradation of the underfill in processing and/or long term exposure to operating temperatures and ambient humidity. This is strongly affected by the chemical compatibility with combinations of solder...