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Research Papers

Flames of Swirling Double-Concentric Jets Subject to Acoustic Excitation at Resonance

[+] Author and Article Information
Omid Ali Zargar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Taiwan University of
Science and Technology,
Taipei 10672, Taiwan, China
e-mail: omid.alizargar@gmail.com

Rong Fung Huang

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Taiwan University of
Science and Technology,
Taipei 10672, Taiwan, China
e-mail: rfhuang@mail.ntust.edu.tw

Ching Min Hsu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Formosa University,
No. 43, Section 4,
Keelung Road,
Yunlin 632, Taiwan, China
e-mail: cmhsu@nfu.edu.tw

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received August 15, 2018; final manuscript received October 3, 2018; published online January 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Matthew Oehlschlaeger.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 11(3), 031004 (Jan 25, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1403; doi: 10.1115/1.4041685 History: Received August 15, 2018; Revised October 03, 2018

The effects of acoustic excitation at resonance on the flame appearances, flame lengths, flame temperatures, and combustion product concentrations of combusting swirling dual-disk double-concentric jets were studied. The Reynolds number of the annular swirling air jet was varied, while it was fixed at 2500 for the central propane jet. The central fuel jet was acoustically forced by a loudspeaker, which was installed using downstream longitudinal irradiation. The central jet pulsation intensities were measured by a calibrated, one-component hot-wire anemometer. The instantaneous full-length and close-up flame images were captured to identify the characteristic flame modes. Long-exposure flame images were taken to measure the flame lengths. The axial and radial temperature distributions of flames were measured using a homemade, fine-wire R-type thermocouple. The concentrations of combustion products were measured by a gas analyzer. Four characteristic flame modes, blue-base wrinkled flame, yellow-base anchored flame, blue-base anchored flame, and lifted flame, were observed in the domain of central jet pulsation intensity and annular swirling jet Reynolds number. The lifted flame, which was formed at large central jet pulsation intensities, presented characteristics of a premixed flame due to significant mixing induced by violent, turbulent flow motions. It was short and stable, with high combustion efficiency and low toxic emissions, when compared with the unexcited flame and other excited characteristic flame modes, which presented characteristics of diffusion flame.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Central jet instantaneous velocity wave forms. Rec = 2500, Rea = 0, Stexc = 0.13: Ip = (a) 0.26, (b) 0.59, and (c) 0.95.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variation of the jet pulsation intensity with the excitation Strouhal number: Rec = 2500, Rea = 0, and Eexc = 5 v

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Typical instantaneous close-up flame images. Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40: (a) (Rea, S) = (382, 0.33), Ip = 0.58 (blue-base wrinkled), (b) (Rea, S) = (578, 0.44), Ip = 0.72 (yellow-base anchored), (c) (Rea, S) = (785, 0.49), Ip = 1.24 (blue-base anchored), (d) (Rea, S) = (1000, 0.54), Ip = 1.76 (lifted). Exposure time = 1 ms.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Typical instantaneous images of full-length flame. Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40: (a) (Rea, S) = (382, 0.33), Ip = 0.58 (blue-base wrinkled), (b) (Rea, S) = (578, 0.44), Ip = 0.72 (yellow-base anchored), (c) (Rea, S) = (785, 0.49), Ip = 1.24 (blue-base anchored), (d) (Rea, S) = (1000, 0.54), Ip = 1.76 (lifted). Exposure time = 1 ms.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Regions of characteristic flame. Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Typical long exposure full-length flame images. Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40. (Rea, S) = (785, 0.49), Ip = 0, (a) unexcited flame, (b) 0.72, yellow-base anchored flame, (c) 1.24, blue-base anchored flame, and (d) 1.76, lifted flame. Exposure time = 2 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Dimensionless flame length. Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Centerline temperature distributions: Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40, and r/D = 0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Radial temperature distributions at x/D = 3: Rec = 2500 and Stexc = 0.40

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Radial temperature distributions at x/D = 10: Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Centerline combustion products concentrations: Rec = 2500, Stexc = 0.40, r/D = 0. (a) carbon dioxide (CO2), (b) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs), (c) carbon monoxide (CO), and (d) nitric oxide (NO).

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