Research Papers

Study on Soot Mass Fraction and Size Distribution in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Particulate Size Mimic Soot Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Fadzli Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia;
Mechanical and Aerospace Technology Division,
Science and Technology Research Institute for
Defence (STRIDE),
Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia

Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood

Department of Mechanical and Materials
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
e-mail: faizal.mahmood@ukm.edu.my

Shahrir Abdullah, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor

Department of Mechanical and Materials
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received May 6, 2018; final manuscript received July 9, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Matthew Oehlschlaeger.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 11(1), 011005 (Sep 17, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1231; doi: 10.1115/1.4040993 History: Received May 06, 2018; Revised July 09, 2018

With today's computing technology, research on soot particles using simulation works has become more preferable as a supplementary to the existing experimental methods. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different engine load conditions to in-cylinder soot particles formation. This is to clarify the relationship between soot mass fraction (SMF) and size distribution. The first section of the study is conducted by computational analysis using a detailed kinetics soot model, particulate size mimic (PSM), which is based on the concept of the discrete sectional method. The analysis is carried out within closed-cycle combustion environment which is from the inlet valve closing (IVC) to the exhaust valve opening (EVO). The next section is conducted by experimental work deliberately for validation purpose. The total soot mass obtained from the computational work during EVO is comparable to the calculated value by less than 13% error for all of the experimental cases. The soot size distribution measurement indicates that exhaust out particles are dominantly in the dual-mode size range, <10 nm and 11–30 nm. The relationship between the soot mass and size distribution demonstrates that soot mass fraction does not completely rely on soot size distribution as well as particle size range. In most of the cases, particles with the moderate size range (11–60 nm) hold the highest mass fraction during EVO. On the whole, this paper provides significant information that contributes key knowledge to indicate that soot mass fraction is not entirely dependent on soot size distribution as well as particle size range.

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Fig. 1

Difference between mesh condition and size resolution with regard to AMR setup

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Fig. 2

Thermophoretic soot sampling method

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Fig. 3

In-cylinder pressure comparison between experimental (Exp.) and simulation (Sim.) results for different engine load cases

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Fig. 4

Soot particle images obtained from the TEM for engine operating conditions at (a) 40%, (b) 20%, and (c) 0% load

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Fig. 5

Comparison of soot PSDF between simulation and experiment for different engine loads: (a) 40%, (b) 20%, and (c)0%

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Fig. 6

Relationship of SMF to the PSDF and soot size during the EVO for different engine loads: (a) 40%, (b) 20%, and (c) 0%



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