Research Papers

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Flow Mixing in Tunnel Kilns by Air Side Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
Adnan Ghareeb Tuaamah Al-Hasnawi

Electromechanical Engineering,
University of Technology,
Tal Muhammad 10066, Baghdad, Iraq
e-mail: adnan_tuaamah@yahoo.com

H. A. Refaey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra,
Benha University,
Cairo 11629, Egypt
e-mail: hassanein.refaey@feng.bu.edu.eg

T. Redemann

Institute of Fluid Dynamics
and Thermodynamics,
Otto von Guericke University,
Universitätsplatz 2,
Magdeburg 39106, Germany
e-mail: tino.redemann@ovgu.de

M. Attalla

Mechanical Power Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
South Valley University,
Qena 83521, Egypt
e-mail: moha_attalla@yahoo.com

E. Specht

Institute of Fluid Dynamics
and Thermodynamics,
Otto von Guericke University,
Universitätsplatz 2,
Magdeburg 39106, Germany
e-mail: eckehard.specht@ovgu.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received November 13, 2016; final manuscript received November 28, 2017; published online March 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sandra Boetcher.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(3), 031007 (Mar 28, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1328; doi: 10.1115/1.4038840 History: Received November 13, 2016; Revised November 28, 2017

The mixing of the two axial flows through the ware and through the gap between ware and walls using side nozzles in the preheating zone of tunnel kiln is investigated. The three-dimensional temperature field in the cross section between the two cars is calculated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool fluent. The mixing quality is evaluated using contours, the frequency of temperature distribution, and the maximum temperature difference. The influence on the mixing behavior of injection flow rate, injection velocity, nozzles position, and nozzle number has been analyzed. The results show that using two nozzles is more effective than one nozzle if the nozzles are installed at the opposite side walls with high vertical distance. The mixing quality increases strongly until an impulse flow rate (IFR) of about 4 N. For higher values, the influence becomes relatively low. The results for the mixing temperature obtained through CFD simulation compared with analytical results show a good agreement with maximum error of 0.5%.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dugwell, D. R. , and Oakley, D. E. , 1989, “ Correlation of Connective Heat Transfer Data for Tunnel Kilns,” ZI, Ziegelindustrie Int./Brick Tile Ind. Int., 42(10), pp. 536–545.
Karaush, S. A. , Chizhik, Y. I. , and Bober, E. G. , 1997, “ Optimization of Ceramic Setting as a Function of Their Heat Absorption From the Radiating Walls of the Furnace,” Glass Ceram. (English Translation StekloiKeramika), 54(5–6), pp. 190–192. [CrossRef]
Durakovic, J. , and Delalic, S. , 2006, “ Temperature Field Analysis of Tunnel Kiln for Brick Production,” RMZ Mater. Geoenviron., 53(3), pp. 403–408. http://www.rmz-mg.com/letniki/rmz53/RMZ53_0403-0408.pdf
Oba, R. , Possamai, T. S. , and Nicolau, V. P. , 2014, “ Thermal Analysis of a Tunnel Kiln Used to Produce Roof Tiles,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 63(1), pp. 59–65. [CrossRef]
Mandhani, V. , Chhabra, R. , and Eswaran, V. , 2002, “ Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Tube Banks in Cross Flow,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 57(3), pp. 379–391. [CrossRef]
Becker, F. H. , Walter, G. , and Lorenz, L. , 2006, “ Heat Exchange in a Fast Fringe Kiln for Glost Firing of Porcelain,” CFI Ceram. Forum Int., 83(9), pp. E59–E65. http://www.riedhammer.de/System/00/01/42/14220/633776334378437500_1.pdf
Dugwell, D. R. , and Oakley, D. E. , 1987, “ Simulation of Tunnel Kilns for Firing Refractory Products,” Br. Ceramic. Trans. J., 86(5), pp. 150–153.
Naccache, M. , Gomes, M. , and Nieckele, A. , 2005, “ Numerical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer Through a Tunne Kiln,” 18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM), Ouro Preto, Brazil, Nov. 6–11, Paper No. COBEM2005-0111. http://www.abcm.org.br/anais/cobem/2005/PDF/COBEM2005-0111.pdf
Possamai, T. S. , Oba, R. , Nicolau, V. , and Otte, O. , 2009, “ Numerical Simulation of a Ceramic Kiln Used in Frits Production,” 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM), Gramado, Brazil, Nov. 15–20, Paper No. COB09 1152. http://www.abcm.org.br/anais/cobem/2009/pdf/COB09-1952.pdf
Mancuhan, E. , and Kucukada, K. , 2006, “ Optimization of Fuel and Air Use in a Tunnel Kiln to Produce Coal Admixed Bricks,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 26(14–15), pp. 1556–1563. [CrossRef]
Refaey, H. A. , and Specht, E. , 2013, “ Flow Field Visualization to Simulate the Burning of Sanitaryware in Tunnel Kilns,” ICFD11: Eleventh International Conference of Fluid Dynamics, Alexandria, Egypt, Dec. 19–20, Paper No. ICFD11-EG-4008. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284730176_Flow_Field_Visualization_to_Simulate_the_Burning_of_Sanitaryware_in_Tunnel_Kilns
Yu, B. , 2007, “ Dynamic Modeling of a Tunnel Kiln,” Heat Transfer Eng., 15(2), pp. 39–53. [CrossRef]
Refaey, H. A. , 2013, “Mathematical Model to Analyze the Heat Transfer in Tunnel Kiln for Burning of Ceramics,” Ph.D. dissertation, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany. https://d-nb.info/105441971X/34
Mezquita, A. , Boix, J. , Monfort, E. , and Mallol, G. , 2014, “ Energy Saving in Ceramic Tile Kilns: Cooling Gas Heat Recovery,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 65(1–2), pp. 102–110. [CrossRef]
Kang, J. , and Rong, Y. , 2006, “ Modeling and Simulation of Load Heating in Heat Treatment Furnaces,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 174(1–3), pp. 109–114. [CrossRef]
Refaey, H. A. , Specht, E. , and Salem, M. R. , 2015, “ Influence of Fuel Distribution and Heat Transfer on Energy Consumption in Tunnel Kilns,” Int. J. Adv. Eng. Technol., 8(3), pp. 281–293. http://www.ijaet.org/media/5I27-IJAET0827764-v8-iss3-281-293.pdf
Redemann, T. , Specht, E. , and Rimpel, E. , 2014, “ Limitations of the Use of Circulation Systems and Their Influence on the Temperature and Velocity Profile in Tunnel Kilns,” Brick Tile Ind. Int., 4, pp. 35–41. http://www.zi-online.info/en/artikel/zi_Limitations_of_the_use_of_circulation_systems_and_their_influence_on_the_2354368.html
Chacon, J. , Sala, J. M. , and Blanco, J. M. , 2006, “ Investigation on the Design and Optimization of a Low NOx–CO Emission Burner Both Experimentally and Through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations,” Energy Fuels, 21(1), pp. 42–58. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef0602473
ANSYS, 2009, “ ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 Theory Guide,” ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Struchtrup, H. , 2014, Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Tunnel Kiln (a) longitudinal section (b) transverse section with injection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic description of the used computational domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Modeling done by ANSYS icem 14.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Grid independence study for the computational domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between theoretical and numerical mixing temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Temperature distribution for various injection velocities (winj) with 1% mixing ratio and one nozzle: (a) contours at x = 0 m ((i) winj = 34 m/s, (ii) winj = 53 m/s, (iii) winj = 94 m/s, and (iv) winj =203 m/s) and (b) temperature distribution at x = 1 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature distribution for various injection velocities (winj) at 1% mixing ratio and two nozzles: (a) contours at x = 0 m ((i) winj = 26 m/s, (ii) winj = 47 m/s, (iii) winj = 102 m/s, and (iv) winj =166 m/s) and (b) temperature distribution at x = 1 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Influence of injection velocities (winj) on temperature difference for mixing ratio 1%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature distribution for various nozzles positions (HR) at 2% mixing ratio and two nozzles: (a) contours at x = 0 m ((i) HR = 0.5, (ii) HR = 0.7, (iii) HR = 0.8, and (iv) HR = 0.9) and (b) temperature distribution at x = 1 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Dimensionless temperature difference as a function of HR at different axial positions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature distribution at main inlet and after 1 m from the side injection with (winj = 106 m/s) for several of mixing ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temperature difference at (winj = 106 m/s) for several of mixing ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Temperature difference at mixing ratio 2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Temperature difference as a function of IFR after half and 1 m from side injection



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In