Research Papers

Optimum Structural Design of Thermal Protection for Supersonic Aircraft by Using Photonic Crystal Material

[+] Author and Article Information
Hao-Chun Zhang

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: zhc5@vip.163.com

Yan-Qiang Wei

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: 1106245112@qq.com

Cheng-Shuai Su

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: 913388702@qq.com

Gong-Nan Xie

School of Marine Science and Technology,
Northwestern Polytechnical University,
Xi'an 710072, China
e-mail: xgn@nwpu.edu.cn

Giulio Lorenzini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Parma,
Parco area delle Scienze 181/A,
Parma 43124, Italy
e-mail: giulio.lorenzini@unipr.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received December 1, 2016; final manuscript received February 28, 2017; published online July 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Steve Q. Cai.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(1), 011007 (Jul 19, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4036791 History: Received December 01, 2016; Revised February 28, 2017

With the rapid development of the supersonic aircraft technology, the aircraft Mach number continues increasing, but on the other hand, the working condition becomes progressively poor. The photonic crystals (PCs) material could reflect the energy of the thermal radiation effectively and prevent heat transferring into the substrate due to its low thermal conductivity. Consequently, the PCs material could be applied to thermal protection for the supersonic aircraft. In this paper, the aircraft state of Mach 5 is set as the target operating condition, and the PC thermal protection ability is simulated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Based on the theory of the electromagnetics, the characteristics of the photonic band gaps for three-dimensional PCs are calculated and the effects of PCs' medium radius, refractive index, and lattice constant are fully taken into account. For the three-dimensional diamond PCs' structure, two major categories and totally five optimized design schemes are proposed, through combining the condition of supersonic aircraft aerodynamic heating. Results show that the temperature is reduced by 948.4 K when the heat passes through thermal protection layer and reduced by 930.4 K when the heat passes through PC layer. By the method of “coupled optimization strategy (COS),” the energy density which enters into substrate material would decrease by 7.99%. In conclusion, the thermal protection capacity for supersonic aircraft could be effectively improved by using the PCs.

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Fig. 1

The flow chart of the simulation

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Fig. 2

SiC–PC–substrates thermal protection system (TPS): (a) the total structure and (b) cross section of the geometrical model for 3D-PCs

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Fig. 3

The relationship between bandgap with PC material characteristics: the relationship between band gap distribution and medium radius (a), the total bandgap width and medium radius (b), the bandgap center and medium radius (c), bandgap range and refractive index (d), the total width of bandgap and refractive index (e), and the center of bandgap and medium ball refractive index (f)

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Fig. 4

The relationship between reflected energy ratio and medium radius

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Fig. 5

The relationship between reflected energy ratio and refractive index

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Fig. 6

Distribution of three-dimensional bandgap

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Fig. 7

The relationship between reflected energy ratio and lattice constant

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Fig. 8

The temperature distribution at 0.1 s: (a) the total temperature distribution and (b) the PC layer's temperature distribution

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Fig. 9

The temperature distribution at 5 s: (a) the total temperature distribution and (b) the PC layer's temperature distribution

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Fig. 10

Temperature evolution with time

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Fig. 11

Temperature difference between the PC layer and substrate



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