Research Papers

Phase Analysis of Scale Deposition in Boiler Tubes Utilizing Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Produced Water

[+] Author and Article Information
Raymond Kuriger

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Russ College of Engineering and Technology,
Ohio University,
251 Stocker Center,
Athens, OH 45701
e-mail: rk335210@ohio.edu

David Young

Department of Chemical &
Biomolecular Engineering,
Institute for Corrosion and
Multiphase Technology,
Russ College of Engineering and Technology,
Ohio University,
342 West State Street,
Athens, OH 45701
e-mail: youngd1@ohio.edu

Malcolm Mackenzie

Babcock & Wilcox,
75 Savage Drive,
Cambridge, ON N1T 1S5, Canada
e-mail: mmackenzie@babcock.com

Hamid Sarv

Babcock & Wilcox,
180 South Van Buren Avenue,
Barberton, OH 44203
e-mail: hsarv@babcock.com

Jason Trembly

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute for Sustainable Energy
and the Environment,
Russ College of Engineering and Technology,
Ohio University,
350 West State Street,
Athens, OH 45701
e-mail: trembly@ohio.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received February 5, 2016; final manuscript received August 10, 2016; published online October 18, 2016. Assoc. Editor: W. J. Marner.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 9(1), 011009 (Oct 18, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1036; doi: 10.1115/1.4034598 History: Received February 05, 2016; Revised August 10, 2016

Scale buildup on water-side heat transfer surfaces poses a potential operating challenge for steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) boilers used in the production of bitumen since produced water, which has a high dissolved solid content, is recycled. Scale from deposition of dissolved solids on boiler tubes acts as a thermal insulating layer, decreasing heat transfer and lowering boiler efficiency. Understanding scale deposit composition on heat transfer surfaces is beneficial in the determination of adequate boiler maintenance practices and operating parameters. This research determined the effect of feedwater pH (7.5, 9.0, and 10.0) on scale composition resulting from deposition of dissolved solids under commercially relevant boiler operating conditions at 8.96 MPa (1300 psig) and 37.86 kW/m2 (12,000 Btu/h ft2). Scale deposits were analytically investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. At feedwater pH values of 7.5 and 9.0, anhydrite (CaSO4), xonotlite (Ca6Si6O17(OH)2), and pectolite (NaCa2Si3O8(OH)) were detected. At the pH of 10.0, xonotlite and pectolite were identified in the absence of anhydrite. Furthermore, the magnesium silicate phase, serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was also postulated to be present.

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Fig. 1

Heat absorption/water circuit control in the TSSG multicirculation boiler

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Fig. 2

Bjerrum plot for the carbonate system at 303 °C, 1 atm, and CT = 1.8 × 10−3 M. H2CO3* denotes both carbonic acid and soluble CO2.

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Fig. 3

Experimental apparatus PFD

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Fig. 4

Trial 1 tube inlet dissolved solid concentrations

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Fig. 5

Trial 1 system pressure

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Fig. 10

XRD profiles for (a) trial 1, (b) trial 2, and (c) trial 3 at Xsteam = 1.7%

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Fig. 9

EDS analysis locations: trial 1 ((a)–(c)), trial 2 ((d) and (e)), and trial 3 (f)

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Fig. 8

Trial 1 system fluid temperatures

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Fig. 7

Trial 1 V-110 outer tube wall temperatures

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Fig. 6

Trial 1 HX-130 band heater temperatures

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Fig. 11

Raman spectrum for (a) trial 1, (b) trial 2, and (c) trial 3

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Fig. 12

HX-130/V-110 assembly schematic



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