Research Papers

Experimental Study of Solar Pond Coupled With Forced Circulation Crystallizer as Major Stages of Proposed Zero Discharge Desalination Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Farshad Farahbod

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Firoozabad, Fars, Iran
e-mail: mf_fche@iauf.ac.ir

Sara Farahmand

Molasadra Avenue Engineering Building,
School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Shiraz, Iran
e-mail: sfarahmand2005@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 13, 2013; final manuscript received August 25, 2013; published online November 8, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jovica R. Riznic.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 6(2), 021002 (Nov 08, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: TSEA-13-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4025420 History: Received March 13, 2013; Revised August 25, 2013

Pretreatment, solar pond (SP), and forced circulation crystallizer (FCC) are the basic stages of one option to provide the goals of zero discharge desalination (ZDD) process. This work represents the performance of a solar pond that is coupled with forced circulation crystallizer as second and third stages of proposed zero discharge desalination process. The purpose of ZDD in this paper is gathering fresh water and saline crystals from effluent wastewater of the desalination unit of Mobin petrochemical complex. So, the SP unit is constructed after the pretreatment unit to concentrate the treated wastewater to about 20 wt. % as a suited feed for the FCC unit. Effects of solar insolation rate are investigated experimentally, during a year. In addition, the effect of cooling water flow rate of FCC on quality of effluent stream from SP as feed crystallizer is studied in this paper. The experimental results show the maximum evaporation rate from SP is obtained 5 l/(m2·d) when the insolation rate was about 2.5 × 104 kJ/(m2·d). Experiments show the suitable range of crystals growth (710 μm to 830 μm) in FCC is occurred when the cooling water flow rate in condenser is 9 kg/min. The size and the color of produced salt crystals will be optimized in this flow rate and energy consumption is measured as 6.98 kW·h.

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Fig. 1

A schematic representation of proposed zero discharge desalination process

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Fig. 2

A photograph of the used solar pond

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Fig. 3

A photograph of the used forced circulation crystallizer

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Fig. 4

A schematic representation of (a) one side of solar pond with the locations of instruments; (b) front cut of distilled water part beside saline water part; and (c) different layers of wastewater in solar pond

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Fig. 5

Relation between density profile and height of wastewater in solar pond (from bottom to the top)

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Fig. 6

Various ambient average temperatures and related insolation rates during seasons

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Fig. 7

Variation of insolation rate with time (7 a.m. till 7 p.m.) on Jun. 17, 2012

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Fig. 8

Variation of average temperature of layers of wastewater and ambient temperature with different months (2012)

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Fig. 9

Variation of the evaporation rate with insolation rate for different months (through 2012)



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