Research Papers

Raman and Infrared Thermometry for Microsystems

[+] Author and Article Information
Leslie M. Phinney

Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
e-mail: lmphinn@sandia.gov

Wei-Yang Lu

Sandia National Laboratories,
Livermore, CA 94551

Justin R. Serrano

Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 22, 2011; final manuscript received October 5, 2012; published online July 15, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Srinath V. Ekkad.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 5(3), 031011 (Jul 15, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: TSEA-11-1134; doi: 10.1115/1.4023395 History: Received September 22, 2011; Revised October 05, 2012

This paper reports and compares Raman and infrared thermometry measurements along the legs and on the shuttle of a SOI (silicon on insulator) bent-beam thermal microactuator. Raman thermometry offers micron spatial resolution and measurement uncertainties of ±10 K. Typical data collection times are a minute per location leading to measurement times on the order of hours for a complete temperature profile. Infrared thermometry obtains a full-field measurement so the data collection time is on the order of a minute. The spatial resolution is determined by the pixel size, 25 μm by 25 μm for the system used, and infrared thermometry also has uncertainties of ±10 K after calibration with a nonpackaged sample. The Raman and infrared measured temperatures agreed both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, when the thermal microactuator was operated at 7 V, the peak temperature on an interior leg is 437 K ± 10 K and 433 K ± 10 K from Raman and infrared thermometry, respectively. The two techniques are complementary for microsystems characterization when infrared imaging obtains a full-field temperature measurement and Raman thermometry interrogates regions for which higher spatial resolution is required.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Skinner, J. L., Dentinger, P. M., Strong, F. W., and Gianoulakis, S. E., 2008, “Low-Power Electrothermal Actuation for Microelectromechanical Systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS, 7(4), p. 043025.
Cahill, D. G., Goodson, K., and Majumdar, A., 2002, “Thermometry and Thermal Transport in Micro/Nanoscale Solid-State Devices and Structures,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 124(2), pp. 223–241. [CrossRef]
Beechem, T., and Graham, S., 2008, “Temperature Measurement of Microdevices using Thermoreflectance and Raman Thermometry,” BioNanoFluidic MEMS, P. J.Hesketh, ed., Springer, New York, pp. 153–174.
Zhang, Z. M., 2000, “Surface Temperature Measurement Using Optical Techniques,” Annual Review of Heat Transfer, C.-L.Tien, ed., Begell House, New York, New York, pp. 351–411.
Green, D. S., Vembu, B., Hepper, D., Gibb, S. R., Jin, D., Vetury, R., Shealy, J. B., Beechem, T., and Graham, S., 2008, “GaN HEMT Thermal Behavior and Implications for Reliability Testing and Analysis,” Phys. Status Solidi C, 5(6), pp. 2026–2029. [CrossRef]
Enikov, E. T., Kedar, S. S., and Lazarov, K. V., 2005, “Analytical Model for Analysis and Design of V-Shaped Thermal Microactuators,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 14(4) pp. 788–798. [CrossRef]
Chu, L. L., Que, L., Oliver, A. D., and Gianchandani, Y. B., 2006, “Lifetime Studies of Electrothermal Bent-Beam Actuators in Single-Crystal Silicon and Polysilicon,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 15(3) pp. 498–506. [CrossRef]
Kearney, S. P., Phinney, L. M., and Baker, M. S., 2006, “Spatially Resolved Temperature Mapping of Electrothermal Actuators by Surface Raman Scattering,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 15(2) pp. 314–321. [CrossRef]
Phinney, L. M., Serrano, J. R., Piekos, E. S., Torczynski, J. R., Gallis, M. A., and Gorby, A. D., 2010, “Raman Thermometry Measurements and Thermal Simulations for MEMS Bridges at Pressures from 0.05 Torr to 625 Torr,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(7), p. 072402. [CrossRef]
Serrano, J. R., Phinney, L. M., and Kearney, S. P., 2006, “Micro-Raman Thermometry of Thermal Flexure Actuators,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 16(7) pp. 1128–1134. [CrossRef]
Phinney, L. M., Baker, M. S., and Serrano, J. R., 2012, “Thermal Microactuators,” Microelectromechanical Systems and Devices, I.Nazul, ed., InTech, pp. 415–434.
Serrano, J. R., Piekos, E. S., and Phinney, L. M., 2012, “Raman Thermometry and Thermal Modeling of Highly Doped Silicon-on-Insulator Joule Heated MEMS Bridges Under Varying Gas Pressures,” Proceedings of the 2012 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Paper No. HTC2012-58114.
Machiraju, H., Infantolino, B., Sammakia, B., and Deeds, M., 2007, “Thermal Analysis of MEMS Actuator Performance,” Proceedings of the 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Paper No. IMECE2007-43475.
Cochran, K. R., Fan, L., and DeVoe, D. L., 2004, “Moving Reflector Type Micro Optical Switch for High-Power Transfer in a MEMS-Based Safety and Arming System,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 14(1) pp. 138–146. [CrossRef]
Sassen, W. P., Henneken, V. A., Tichem, M., and Sarro, P. M., 2008, “An Improved In-Plane Thermal Folded V-Beam Actuator for Optical Fibre Alignment,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 18(1), p. 075033. [CrossRef]
Bergna, S., Gorman, J. J., and Dagalakis, N. G., 2005, “Design and Modeling of Thermally Actuated MEMS Nanopositioners,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Paper No. IMECE2005-82158.
Baker, M. S., Plass, R. A., Headley, T. J., and Walraven, J. A., 2004 “Final Report: Compliant Thermomechanical MEMS Actuators LDRD #52553,” Sandia Report No. SAND2004-6635, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
Wong, C. C., and Phinney, L. M., 2007 “Computational Analysis of Responses of Micro Electro-Thermal Actuators,” Proceedings of the 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Paper No. IMECE2007-41462.
Hickey, R., Sameoto, D., Hubbard, T., and Kujath, M., 2003, “Time and Frequency Response of Two-Arm Micromachined Thermal Actuators,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 13(1) pp. 40–46. [CrossRef]
Lott, C. D., McLain, T. W., Harb, J. N., and Howell, L. L., 2002, “Modeling the Thermal Behavior of a Surface-Micromachined Linear-Displacement Thermomechanical Microactuator,” Sens. Actuators, A, 101(1–2) pp. 239–250. [CrossRef]
Milanović, V., 2004, “Multilevel Beam SOI-MEMS Fabrication and Applications,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 13(1) pp. 19–30. [CrossRef]
Beechem, T., Graham, S., Kearney, S. P., Phinney, L. M., and Serrano, J. R., 2007, “Simultaneous Mapping of Temperature and Stress in Microdevices Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 78(6), Paper No. 061301, pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Abel, M. R., Graham, S., Serrano, J. R., Kearney, S. P., and Phinney, L. M., 2007, “Raman Thermometry of Polysilicon Microelectromechanical Systems in the Presence of an Evolving Stress,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(3) pp. 329–334. [CrossRef]
Beechem, T. E., and Serrano, J. R., 2011, “Raman Thermometry of Microdevices: Choosing a Method to Minimze Error,” Spectroscopy, 26(11), pp. 36–44.
Sato, T., 1967 “Spectral Emissivity of Silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 6(3) pp. 339–347. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic and picture of the SOI thermal microactuator tested. (a) Schematic shows the thermal microactuator design. The widths of the microactuators legs and shuttle are 50 μm and 100 μm, respectively. The darker region on the anchors is the 900 μm × 900 μm area where aluminum was deposited to improve the connection to the bond wires. (b) Picture of a sample die. The center thermal microactuator was tested, and the microactuator legs are numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 from bottom to top. Two wires bonded to each bond pad are visible in the image. The connections to the package are outside of the image.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperatures recorded from the infrared imaging system during the calibration for emissivities, e, ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, as a function of the thermocouple temperature. The agreement between the graphed thermocouple temperatures, the dotted line, and the values from the infrared system with an emissivity of 0.8 indicate that the appropriate emissivity is 0.8.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature profiles on the thermal microactuator obtained using Raman thermometry on the thermal microactuator legs from the anchor (position-0 μm) to the shuttle (position-5500 μm) when powered with 5 V or 7 V. When viewed so that the motion occurs in an upward direction, leg 1 is at the bottom and leg 4 is at the top.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature measurements on the thermal microactuator operated at 5 V and 7 V obtained using Raman thermometry at −10 μm, 1800 μm, and 3600 μm from edge of the anchor (position-0 μm) vertically upward in the direction of actuator motion. When viewed so that the motion occurs in an upward direction, leg 1 is at the bottom and leg 4 is at the top.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Raman temperature measurements made at 3 V, 5 V, 7 V, and 9 V along the shuttle of the thermal microactuator taken starting at 20 μm from the rounded end of the shuttle to the opposite end, with measurements every 150 μm. The four leg positions are marked.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Infrared thermal images of the thermal microactuator operated at (a) 3 V, (b) 5 V, and (c) 7 V. Temperature profiles in K are shown along the beams from the anchor to the substrate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature profiles on the thermal microactuator obtained using infrared thermometry when powered at 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

IR temperature measurements made at 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V along the shuttle of the thermal microactuator. The dip in temperature observed at ∼200 μm corresponds to a metal line patterned on the silicon for which the surface emissivity calibration is incorrect.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Magnified view of the boxed area in Fig. 7(c) with a different temperature color range to show the spatial resolution of the infrared thermometry. Each pixel represents 25 μm by μm. When a pixel is not completely on the actuator leg, the temperature is not accurate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Raman (solid symbols) and IR (open symbols) temperature measurements made at 5 V and 7 V on the thermal microactuator legs from the anchor (position-0 μm) to the shuttle (position-5500 μm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Raman (solid triangles) and IR (open triangles) temperature measurements made at 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V along the centerline of the thermal microactuator shuttle.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In