Contact modeling of two rough surfaces under normal approach and with relative motion is carried out to predict the real area of contact which affects friction and wear of an interface. The contact of two macroscopically flat bodies with microroughness is reduced to the contact at multiple asperities of arbitrary shapes. Most of deformation at the asperity contact can be either elastic or elastic-plastic. In this paper, a comprehensive review of modeling of a single asperity contact or an indentation problem is presented. Contact analyses for a spherical asperity/indenter on homogeneous and layered, elastic and elastic-plastic solids with and without tangential loading are presented. The analyses reviewed in this paper fall into two groups: (a) analytical solutions, primarily for elastic solids and (b) finite element solutions, primarily for elastic-plastic problems and layered solids. Implications of these analyses in friction and wear are discussed.

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