The aviation large panel is an important component that constitutes the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft. It has the characteristics of large size, thin wall and weak rigidity. It is prone to produce assembly deformation during the automatic drilling and riveting assembly connection process, including the overall bending and torsion deformation of the panel, and the defects around the rivet. In this paper, through the test of automatic drilling and riveting assembly of large panels, a local sinking deformation along the axis of the long stringer is found. The cause of this deformation problem is complex and directly affects the subsequent assembly process. It is a strong coupling problem between the automatic drilling and riveting process and the elastic-plastic deformation of the rivet and its connected parts, and it has a high correlation with the meso-structure of the plate structure around the nail hole after the rivet is riveted.
Aiming at this deformation problem, this paper first established a process model of the riveting process and designed riveting test pieces with different process parameters. The effects of riveting force, riveting process time, and upper riveting cavity on the meso-structure of the riveting area are explored, and the correlation between the meso-structure of the riveting area and the riveting process parameters is analyzed. Then, based on the above research, a finite element numerical model of a typical aircraft siding riveting component structure including meso-structure is established. Through the finite element simulation calculation of the model, the coupling relationship between macroscopic deformation and mesoscopic structure is further explored, the existence of local subsidence and deformation along the axis of the long truss is verified.