The detailed investigation of flow behavior inside the combustion chamber and performance of engine is most challenging problem due to constraints in Experimental Data collection during testing; However, Experimental testing is essential for establishment of correlation with CFD Predictions. Hence, the baseline engine was tested at different load conditions and validated with CFD results, before it was optimized for performance improvement. The objective of the CFD Prediction was not only to optimize performance (Fuel Efficiency, Power, Torque, etc.) & Emissions Reduction, but also to assess feasibility of Performance Upgrade Potential.

In the present CFD study, surface mesh and domain was prepared for the flame face, intake valve, intake valve seat, exhaust valve, exhaust valve seat and liner for closed volume cycle, between IVC and EVO using CFD code VECTIS. Finally simulations for three different load conditions were conducted using VECTIS solver. Initially, in-cylinder pressure vis a vis crank angle prediction was carried out for 100%, 75% and 50% load conditions. Then the fine tuning of (P-ϴ) diagram for different load conditions was conducted by varying different combustion parameters. Further, the engine performance validation was carried out for rated and part load conditions in terms of, IMEP, BMEP, break specific fuel consumption and power output, while NOx mass fractions were used to convert the NOx to g/kWh for comparison of emission levels with the test data. Finally optimized re-entrant combustion chamber and modified valve timing with optimum fuel injection system simulation was carried out to achieve target performance with reduced fuel consumption. A 3D CFD result showed reduction in BSFC and was in close agreement with the test data.

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