Springs are mechanical devices that are employed to resist forces, store energy, absorb shocks, mitigate vibrations, or maintain parts contacting each other. Spring wires are commonly coiled in the forms of helixes for either extension or compression. Helical springs usually have cylindrical shapes that have constant coil diameter, constant pitch and constant spring rate. Unlike conventional cylindrical coil springs, the coil diameter of conically coiled springs is variable. They have conical or tapered shapes that have a large coil diameter at the base and a small coil diameter at the top. The variable coil diameter enables conical coil springs generate desired load deflection relationships, have high lateral stability and low buckling liability. In addition, conical compression springs can have significantly larger compression or shorter compressed height than conventional helical compression springs. The compressed height of a conical compression spring can reach its limit that is the diameter of the spring wire if it is properly synthesized. The height of an undeformed conical coil spring can have its height of its spring wire if the spring pitch is chosen to be zero. The variable coil diameter of conical coil springs provides them with unique feature, but also raises their synthesis difficulties. Synthesizing conical coil springs that require large spring compression or small deformed spring height or constant spring rate is challenging. This research is motivated by surmounting the current challenges facing conical coil springs. In this research, independent parameters are introduced to control the diameter and pitch of a conical coil spring. Different conical coil springs are modeled. Their performances are simulated using the created models. The deflection-force relationships of conical coil springs are analyzed. The results from this research provide useful guidelines for developing conical coil springs.

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