Performance and aerodynamic aspects of ultra-high bypass ratio ducted engines have been investigated with an emphasis on nozzle aerodynamics. The interference with aircraft aerodynamics could not be covered.
Numerical methods were used for aerodynamic investigations of geometrically different aft end configurations for bypass ratios between 12 and 18, this is the optimum range for long missions which will be important for future civil engine applications.
Results are presented for a wide range of operating conditions and effects on engine performance are discussed. The limitations for higher bypass ratios than 12 to 18 do not come from nozzle aerodynamics but from installation effects.
It is shown that using CFD and performance calculations an improved aerodynamic design can be achieved. Based on existing correlations, for thrust and mass-flow, or using aerodynamic tailoring by CFD and including performance investigations, it is possible to increase the thrust coefficient up to 1%.