The thermal management of aero gas turbine engine combustion systems commonly employs effusion-cooling in combination with various cold-side convective cooling schemes. The combustor liner incorporates many small holes which are usually set in staggered arrays and at a shallow angle to the cooled surface; relatively cold compressor delivery air is then allowed to flow through these holes to provide the full-coverage film-cooling effect. The efficient design of such systems requires robust correlations of film-cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient at a range of aero-thermal conditions, and the use of appropriately validated computational models. However, the flow conditions within a combustor are characterised by particularly high turbulence levels and relatively large length scales. The experimental evidence for performance of effusion-cooling under such flow conditions is currently sparse. The work reported here is aimed at quantifying typical effusion-cooling performance at a range of combustor relevant free-stream conditions (high turbulence), and also to assess the importance of modeling the coolant to free-stream density ratio. Details of a new laboratory wind-tunnel facility for the investigation of film-cooling at high turbulence levels are reported. For a typical combustor effusion geometry that uses cylindrical holes, spatially resolved measurements of adiabatic effectiveness, heat transfer coefficient and net heat flux reduction are presented for a range of blowing ratios (0.48 to 2), free-stream turbulence conditions (4 and 22%) and density ratios (0.97 and 1.47). The measurements reveal that elevated free-stream turbulence impacts on both the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient, although this is dependent upon the blowing ratio being employed and particularly the extent to which the coolant jets detach from the surface. At low blowing ratios the presence of high turbulence levels causes increased lateral spreading of the coolant adjacent to the injection points, but more rapid degradation in the downstream direction. At high blowing ratios, high turbulence levels cause a modest increase in effectiveness due to turbulent transport of the detached coolant fluid. Additionally, the augmentation of heat transfer coefficient caused by the coolant injection is seen to be increased at high free-stream turbulence levels.
Effusion-Cooling Performance at Gas Turbine Combustor Representative Flow Conditions
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Kakade, VU, Thorpe, SJ, & Gerendás, M. "Effusion-Cooling Performance at Gas Turbine Combustor Representative Flow Conditions." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2012: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. Volume 4: Heat Transfer, Parts A and B. Copenhagen, Denmark. June 11–15, 2012. pp. 857-869. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2012-68115
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