This paper reports the outcome of applying two different low-Re number eddy-viscosity models to resolve the complex three-dimensional motion that arises in turbulent flow in a square cross-section duct passing around a 90° bend. Flow computations have been obtained using a three-dimensional, non-orthogonal flow solver. For modeling of turbulence, the Launder and Sharma low-Re k–ε model and a recently modified version of nonlinear low-Re k–ε model that have been shown to be suitable for flow and thermal predictions in re-circulating and impinging jet flows, have been employed. A bounded version of the QUICK scheme was used for the approximation of convection in all transport equations. The numerical predictions are validated through comparisons with the reported flow measurements and are used to explain how the curvature influences the flow development. The results of the present investigation indicate that the curvature induces a strong secondary flow in the curved section of the duct. The secondary motion also persists downstream of the bend, although it slowly disappears with the main stream development. At the entrance of the curved section, the curvature alters the flow development by displacing the fluid towards the convex (inner) wall. Comparisons of the predicted stream-wise and cross-stream velocity components with the measured data indicate that both turbulence models employed in the present study can produce reasonable predictions, although the non-linear model predictions are generally closer to the measurements. Both turbulence models successfully reproduce the distribution as well as the levels of the local pressure coefficient in the curved section of the duct.

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