The iterative algorithm of design variables for structural topology optimization is derived by using variable density approach and Finite Element Method. A coupled model of bent-bar-frame piston is built considering the contact between piston and cylinder, piston and piston pin, piston pin and connecting rod. Based on this model, the deformation and stress of piston are analyzed under each of mechanical or thermal loading. Taking structural weight as the objective function of optimization, three desired regions of piston are optimized by using variable density approach in commercial FEA software HYPERMESH and ANSYS. Finally, the deformation and temperature of the optimized model are compared with prototype by using the same loading and boundary conditions. The results show that the weight of piston is reduced by 12.5% while meeting the required specifications.

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