Multi-axis (z, θx, θy) micro-actuators based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) for use in dual axes confocal microscopy are presented with their static and dynamic models. Prototype actuators have achieved as much as 430 μm of vertical displacement and ±10° of mechanical tilting angles in both θx and θy directions in a footprint of 3.2×3.2 mm. The experimental static displacements and transient response of the actuator were used to identify residual stresses in the thin films, dimensional variance due to fabrication limitation, and damping coefficients in the model. With the identified parameters, the model predicts the static displacements of the four corners of the stage with an average absolute error of 17.4 μm over five different voltage levels and shows a reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured transient dynamic data. These results will be used to develop closed-loop controller for the system.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.