Research Papers

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061001-061001-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040656.

In this paper, the simulation model of two-dimensional (2D) distribution parameter of a CO2 microchannel evaporator was developed using the finite element method. The simulation model of the CO2 microchannel evaporator was written using matlab both considering the dry and wet conditions on air side, and different heat transfer characteristics of CO2 in two-phase region and overheated region. The experimental and simulation results in terms of CO2 temperature, wall temperature, inlet and outlet air temperatures, and convective heat transfer coefficient were compared. The simulation results have the same tendency with the experimental correlation results. The convective heat transfer efficient increases with the growth of CO2 inlet dryness, mass flow rate and air speed, while decreases along with the increase of evaporation pressure in two-phase region. The dry-out point appears earlier with larger CO2 inlet dryness, and higher air temperature, humidity and speed; however, it appears later with the increasing evaporation pressure and mass flow rate. The convective heat transfer coefficient at the dry-out point decreases dramatically due to the deteriorated heat transfer at this position, which indicates the necessity to prevent or retard the appearance of dry-out point.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061002-061002-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040134.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based casting method was used to fabricate PDMS cell culture platforms with molds printed by a fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer. Cell viability study indicated that the produced plates have the suitable biocompatibility, surface properties, and transparency for cell culture purposes. The molds printed from acrylonitrile-butadiene-syrene (ABS) were reusable after curing at 65 °C, but were damaged at 75 °C. To understand thermal damage to the mold at elevated temperatures, the temperature distribution in an ABS mold during the curing process was predicted using a model that considers conduction, convection, and radiation in the oven. The simulated temperature distribution was consistent with the observed mold deformation. As the maximum temperature difference in the mold did not change appreciably with the curing temperature, we consider that the thermal damage is due to the porous structure that increases the thermal expansion coefficient of the printed material. Our study demonstrated that FDM, an affordable and accessible three-dimensional (3D) printer, has great potential for rapid prototyping of custom-designed cell culture devices for biomedical research.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061003-061003-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040654.

The present work is aimed to investigate whether the modification to the bend geometry of a multipass internal cooling passage in a gas turbine blade can enhance heat transfer and reduce pressure drop. The two-pass channel and the four-pass channel are modified at the bend from the U shape to the bulb and bow shape. The first objective of the work is to investigate whether the modified design will still improve heat transfer with reduced pressure drop in a four-pass channel as in the case of a two-pass channel. It is found out that, unlike the two-pass channel, the heat transfer is not improved but the pressure drop is still reduced for the four-pass channel. The second objective is to investigate the rotating effect on heat transfer and pressure drop in the cases of two-pass and four-pass channels for both original and modified designs. It is found out that heat transfer is improved with reduced pressure drop for all cases. However, the modified design results in the less improvement on heat transfer and lower reduced pressure drop as the rotation number increases. It can be concluded from the present work that the modification can solve the problem of pressure drop without causing the degradation of heat transfer for all cases. The two-pass channel with modified bend results in the highest heat transfer and the lowest pressure drop for rotating cases.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061004-061004-14. doi:10.1115/1.4040653.

In the present work, a novel parabolic trough receiver design has been proposed. The proposed design is similar to the conventional receiver design except for the envelope and the annulus part. Here, a certain portion of the conventional glass envelope is coated with Sn-In2O3 and also Sn-In2O3 coated glass baffles are provided in the annulus part to reduce the radiative losses. The optical properties of the coated glass are such that it allows most of the solar irradiance to pass through, but reflects the emitted long wavelength radiations back to the absorber tube. Sn-In2O3 coated glass is referred to as “transparent heat mirror.” Thus, effectively reducing the heat loss area and improving the thermal efficiency of the solar collector. A detailed one-dimensional steady-state heat transfer model has been developed to predict the performance of the proposed receiver design. It was observed that while maintaining the same external conditions (such as ambient/initial temperatures, wind speed, solar insolation, flow rate, and concentration ratio), the heat mirror-based parabolic trough receiver design has about 3–5% higher thermal efficiency as compared to the conventional receiver design. Furthermore, the heat transfer analysis reveals that depending on the spatial incident solar flux distribution, there is an optimum circumferential angle (θ = θoptimum, where θ is the heat mirror circumferential angle) up to which the glass envelope should be coated with Sn-In2O3. For angles higher than the optimum angle, the collector efficiency tends to decrease owing to increase in optical losses.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061005-061005-11. doi:10.1115/1.4040644.

The steady hydromagnetic flow of a viscous, incompressible, perfectly conducting, and heat absorbing fluid past a vertical flat plate under the influence of an aligned magnetic field is studied. The flow is subject to mixed convective heat transfer. The fluid is assumed to have a reasonably high magnetic Prandtl number which causes significant-induced magnetic field effects. Such fluid flows find application in many magnetohydrodynamic devices including MHD power-generation. The effects of viscous dissipation and heat absorption by the fluid are investigated. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a set of nonsimilar partial differential equations which are then solved using a spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). The effects of the important parameters on the fluid velocity, induced magnetic field, fluid temperature and as well as on the coefficient of skin-friction and the Nusselt number are discussed qualitatively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061006-061006-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040652.

A general correlation is presented for heat transfer during flow of gas–liquid mixtures flowing in vertical channels prior to dry out. It has been verified with a wide range of data that include upward and downward flow in heated and cooled tubes, annuli, and rectangular channels. The data are from 19 studies and include 14 gas–liquid mixtures with a wide range of properties. The parameters include pressure 1–6.9 bar, temperature 16–115 °C, liquid Reynolds number from 2 to 127,231, superficial gas and liquid velocities up to 87 and 13 m/s, respectively, and ratio of superficial gas and liquid velocities 0.03–1630. The 1022 data points are predicted by the new correlation with mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 18.1%. Several other correlations were also compared to the same data and had MAD of 28.6–45.5%.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061007-061007-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040655.

In this work, numerical experiments were performed to compare the heat transfer and thermodynamic performance of melting process inside the square-shaped thermal energy storage system with three different heating configurations: an isothermal heating from left side-wall or bottom-wall or top-wall and with three adiabatic walls. The hot wall is maintained at a temperature higher than the melting temperature of the phase change material (PCM), while all other walls are perfectly insulated. The transient numerical simulations were performed for melting Gallium (a low Prandtl number Pr = 0.0216, low Stefan number, Ste = 0.014, PCM with high latent heat to density ratio) at moderate Rayleigh number (Ra ≊ 105). The transient numerical simulations consist of solving coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equation in the unstructured formulation using the PISO algorithm. In this work, the fixed grid, a source-based enthalpy-porosity approach has been adopted. The heat transfer performance of the melting process was analyzed by studying the time evolution of global fluid fraction, Nusselt number at the hot wall, and volume-averaged normalized flow-kinetic-energy. The thermodynamic performance was analyzed by calculating the local volumetric entropy generation rates and absolute entropy generation considering both irreversibilities due to the finite temperature gradient and viscous dissipation. The bottom-heating configuration yielded the maximum Nusselt number but has a slightly higher total change in entropy generation compared to other heating configurations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061008-061008-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040697.

This study analyzes phase change material (PCM) freezing process in a novel latent heat storage device (LHSD). Heat is removed from the PCM with an embedded evaporator. A mathematical model of freezing in a finite-thickness PCM slab is presented. An experimentally validated reduced-order model (ROM) based on the mathematical model was developed to analyze the heat transfer between the freezing PCM and an evaporating refrigerant flowing inside a flat, microchannel tube coil embedded in the PCM. A detailed finite element model (FEM) of the same device was also developed and employed to verify the validity of the ROM over a wider range of conditions. The freezing times and total “cooling” stored in the PCM computed by the ROM agree very well with those computed by the detailed FEM. The ROM executes in ∼1 min for a full heat exchanger, compared with more than 10 h for the FEM, making the former much more practical for use in parametric analysis and optimization of design alternatives.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061009-061009-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040643.

Temperature control is one of the most significant factors to improve the performance and extend the cycle life of a battery. It is, therefore, important to design and implement an effective battery thermal management system (TMS). Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used as a cooling means for batteries. In the present paper, a preliminary analysis of the thermal behavior of PCMs used to cool down a heated metal surface was carried out. Tests have shown that pure PCMs are able to limit the temperature increase, but only for relatively low-heat fluxes. At higher values of the heat produced, the thermal conductivity of the PCM was increased by using solid foams characterized by higher thermal conductivity; it was, thus, possible to keep the surface temperature within safe limits for longer times. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the composite material (PCM + solid foam) was also developed, which allowed to predict the temperature trend within the system under different boundary conditions. However, the average thermal conductivity of the composite system that best fitted the experimental results was found to be much lower than that theoretically predicted by using common semiempirical correlations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061010-061010-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040896.

An experimentally validated finite element model (FEM) was developed to analyze the design parameters of a latent heat storage device (LHSD) for a micro environmental control system (μX). The μX provides local cooling to an office worker in a room whose thermostat setpoint has been elevated from 23.9 °C (75 °F) to 26.1 °C (79 °F) in order to reduce heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption. For this application, the LHSD is designed to provide ≥50 W of cooling for a full, 8.5 h workday to restore thermal comfort in the warm, 26.1 °C room. The LHSD comprises several parallel slabs of encased phase change material (PCM) with interposed airflow channels. The airflow rate is selected to obtain ≥50 W of cooling at the end of the 8.5 h operation. The LHSD exhibits a decreasing cooling rate over the 8.5 h period when a constant airflow is passed through it, indicating that more cooling is supplied during the day than the minimum 50 W required for thermal comfort. The parametric analysis explores the effects of PCM thermal conductivity, slab thickness, air channel width, and number of slabs on LHSD performance. Parametric cases are compared against each other on the basis of their required PCM mass and energy consumption.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061011-061011-6. doi:10.1115/1.4040657.

We study in this paper the combined effect of heat loss and reversibility on the propagation of planar flames formed within the counterflow configuration. The problem has been formulated first using the thermodiffusive model with constant density and then solved numerically using finite elements. The impact of four main parameters, namely the reversibility r, the heat loss κ, the strain rate ε, and the activation energy β, on the propagation of planar flames has been discussed in details. The study has shown that planar flames under reversible conditions behave qualitatively similar to those observed for irreversible reactions, which agree with the asymptotic findings. In the presence of heat loss, the problem exhibits multiplicity of solutions whose number and stability were found to vary according to the strain rate ε. In addition, the study has predicted the existence of a certain value of the reversibility parameter r beyond which the impact of reversibility becomes negligible. Finally, we have examined the stability of the solutions and determined the domain of stability of solutions and their multiplicity for this problem.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061012-061012-15. doi:10.1115/1.4040987.

A typical three-fluid cross-flow heat exchanger with nonuniform inlet temperature in the central (hot) fluid is considered for the present analysis. Steady and transient state behavior of the heat exchanger is observed for four different temperature nonuniformity models along with step excitation in inlet temperature of the central fluid. Longitudinal heat conduction in the separating walls and the effect of fluid back-mixing along with axial dispersion effect are considered within the fluids with constant thermophysical fluid properties. The solution of governing equations has been obtained using implicit finite difference scheme. Temperature distribution over the separating walls has been depicted providing a clear view of the thermal stresses generated in separating walls. The performance for all the four cross-flow arrangements has been analyzed by comparing that with and without nonuniform conditions. It is found that the nonuniformity in inlet temperature has an adverse effect on the performance of heat exchanger.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061013-061013-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040895.

Pressure oscillating tubes are core components of the gas wave refrigerator. The reverse compression waves will limit refrigeration efficiency by reheat cooling gas. The promotion from traditional rotation gas wave refrigerator with single opened pressure oscillating tubes to the streamlined pressure exchange gas wave refrigerator with double opened pressure oscillating tubes is mainly in terms of this issue. However, through weakened, reverse compression waves are still inevitable. For further development, the concept of a wave attenuator has been proposed, installed at the high-temperature (HT) port. Numerical simulation has been utilized to analyze mechanism of wave attenuator and the practical effect has been proved by experiment research. The conclusions are as follows: due to structure of wave attenuator, the intensity of reverse compression waves has been weakened; the optimal structure of wave attenuator has been obtained; the refrigeration efficiency of the refrigerator has been significantly increased because of wave attenuator in HT port.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061014-061014-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040965.

Flow boiling in an onboard variable microgap is demonstrated as a viable cooling method for multidevice electronics. The microgap is created by a bonded conformal encapsulation that delivers uniform subcooled inlet coolant flow across a multidevice layout comprising a processor and two in-line, symmetrically placed memory devices. Each device is simulated with a ceramic resistance heater on a 1:1 scale, and the heights of the devices create the variable microgap under the roof line of the encapsulation. The gap height for the processor is 0.5 mm and 1 mm for the memory devices. Parameters investigated are pressure drop, average device temperature, processor power, and coefficient of performance (COP). For inlet coolant flow first over the memory devices, the average device temperature exceeds the 95 °C limit when processor power is ∼50 W or less. For inlet flow over the processor, memory device temperatures are approximately the same over all the levels of processor and memory chip power. For processor power <30 W and an inlet coolant temperature of 25 °C, single-phase heat transfer is the dominant cooling mechanism. When processor power is >40 W, two-phase heat transfer dominates, and processor power of 120 W is reached within the 95 °C threshold. Volumetric power density across the data set is 134 to 1209 W/cm3.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061015-061015-20. doi:10.1115/1.4040645.

A two-dimensional (2D) numerical study is carried out to investigate the thermal performance of an impure phase-change material (PCM) in an equilateral triangular-shaped double pipe heat exchanger. To tackle the irregular boundaries, a nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) transformation technique is employed. The nondimensional transformed curvilinear conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are written in terms of physical variables and they are solved using a control-volume based finite difference method on a staggered grid arrangement. The developed model is then used to study the effects of the inner tube wall temperature, the initial temperature of the solid PCM, and the shape, as well as the position of the inner tube in the annulus on the melting characteristics, and cumulatively stored energy. Various quantities such as average Nusselt numbers over the inner tube surface, the total and complete melt fractions, and the latent and total stored energies all as a function of the melting time are reported. A correlation for the average Nusselt number on the inner tube wall is also provided. The numerical results show that the shape and the placement of the inner tube are crucial for the efficient design of a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) system. The storage of energy is greatly influenced by the change of the inner tube wall temperature compared to the change of initial solid PCM temperature.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061016-061016-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041267.

This paper presents a numerical study of the magnetohydrodynamics, natural convection, and thermodynamic irreversibilities in an I-shape enclosure, filled with CuO-water nanofluid and subject to a uniform magnetic field. The lateral walls of the enclosure are maintained at different but constant temperatures, while the top and bottom surfaces are adiabatic. The Brownian motion of the nanoparticles is taken into account and an extensive parametric study is conducted. This involves the variation of Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers, and the concentration of nanoparticles and also the geometrical specifications of the enclosure. Further, the behaviors of streamlines and isotherms under varying parameters are visualized. Unlike that in other configurations, the rate of heat transfer in the I-shaped enclosure appears to be highly location dependent and convection from particular surfaces dominates the heat transfer process. It is shown that interactions between the magnetic field and natural convection currents in the investigated enclosure can lead to some peculiarities in the thermal behavior of the system. The results also demonstrate that different parts of the enclosure may feature significantly different levels of heat transfer sensitivity to the applied magnetic field. Further, the analysis of entropy generation indicates that the irreversibility of the system is a strong function of the geometrical parameters and that the variations in these parameters can minimize the total generation of entropy. This study clearly shows that ignoring the exact shape of the enclosure may result in major errors in the prediction of heat transfer and second law performances of the system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):061017-061017-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041197.

Low grade waste heat recovery presents an opportunity to utilize typically wasted energy to reduce overall energy consumption and improve system efficiencies. In this work, the technoeconomic performance of a turbocompression cooling system (TCCS) driven by low grade waste heat in the engine coolant of a large marine diesel generator set is investigated. Five different working fluids were examined to better understand the effects of fluid characteristics on system performance: R134a, R245fa, R1234ze(E), R152a, and R600a. A coupled thermodynamic, heat exchanger, and economic simulation was developed to calculate the simple payback period of the waste heat recovery system, which was minimized using a search and find optimization routine with heat exchanger effectiveness as the optimization parameter. A sensitivity study was performed to understand which heat exchanger effectiveness had the largest impact on payback period. Of the five working fluids examined, a TCCS with R152a as the working fluid had the lowest payback period of 1.46 years with an initial investment of $181,846. The R152a system was most sensitive to the two-phase region of the power cycle condenser. The R1234ze(E) system provided the largest return on investment over a ten year lifetime of $1,399,666.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):064501-064501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4039927.

Most oil-cooled equipment like transformers are provided with radiators or heat exchangers, for the heated oil to exchange heat with the surrounding air by natural convection cooling, assisting the overall cooling process. While such radiators are effective accessories in controlling equipment temperature rise, it is ever desirable to further enhance the cooling capacity by design modifications or incorporating simplistic and cost-effective cooling technologies. In this study, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis has been performed to evaluate the possibility of improving radiator performance by flow channelizing structures. Significant benefits (up to 17% increase in heat transfer coefficient) of imposing such structures, like a top chimney and an enclosure surrounding the radiator, were obtained. Although several past studies have confirmed that natural convection cooling effect can be intensified by flow channelization, the phenomenon is unique to a particular application. Given the wide variety in applications, in terms of shape, size, and structural features, it is necessary to study the effect in a given application of interest. This study points to a new direction in enhancing the cooling capacity of transformer radiators, inducing flow channelization, an easy-to-implement and cost-effective technology. Further, the study offers interesting learnings regarding flow channelization effects, which are invaluable guidelines for designers of future radiators.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(6):064502-064502-4. doi:10.1115/1.4040988.

In the present study, the numerical investigation has been performed for a phase change material (PCM)-based longitudinal fin heat sink. The fins are taken as an integral part of the heat sink and are made up of aluminum. The PCM considered in the study is RT44HC. Heat is transferred to the heat sink through its horizontal base. In order to simulate the melting behavior of the PCM, volume of fluid model has been used. To attain the best configuration with optimum operational time, Taguchi method has been used followed by analysis of melt fraction and maximum base temperature. The optimized heat sink configuration with maximum operational time has been obtained at the critical temperatures of 54.8 °C, 63 °C, and 72.6 °C.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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