Research Papers

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041001-041001-12. doi:10.1115/1.4038737.

This paper explores the use of a self-adaptive multipopulation elitist (SAMPE) Jaya algorithm for the economic optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHE) design. Three different optimization problems of STHE are considered in this work. The same problems were earlier attempted by other researchers using genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, biogeography-based optimization (BBO), imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA), artificial bee colony (ABC), cuckoo-search algorithm (CSA), intelligence-tuned harmony search (ITHS), and cohort intelligence (CI) algorithm. The Jaya algorithm is a newly developed algorithm and it does not have any algorithmic-specific parameters to be tuned except the common control parameters of number of iterations and population size. The search mechanism of the Jaya algorithm is upgraded in this paper by using the multipopulation search scheme with the elitism. The SAMPE-Jaya algorithm is proposed in this paper to optimize the setup cost and operational cost of STHEs simultaneously. The performance of the proposed SAPME-Jaya algorithm is tested on four well-known constrained, ten unconstrained standard benchmark problems, and three STHE design optimization problems. The results of computational experiments proved the superiority of the proposed method over the latest reported methods used for the optimization of the same problems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041002-041002-6. doi:10.1115/1.4038708.

The effect of iron (Fe) nanoparticles additive to biodiesel blend and diesel fuels in terms of engine performance and emission characteristics is experimentally investigated in a stationary diesel engine. A fuel additive INP is suspended in the neat diesel (D) and 20% palm biodiesel (PB) blend with diesel (PB20) using ultra-sonication process and these modified fuels are termed as D + 50Fe and PB20 + 50Fe, respectively. Experiments are conducted on a developed diesel experimental setup to evaluate the engine performance and exhaust emissions for the fuels, namely, D, PB20, D + 50Fe, and PB20 + 50Fe. Results indicate that the density, viscosity, and calorific value of the fuel blends tend to increase with the addition of nanoparticles in the blends. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) gets enhanced by about 2.06% for PB20 + 50Fe and about 0.36% for D + 50Fe with respect to BTE of PB20 and D, respectively. Similarly, brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is lowered by 2.71% for PB20 + 50Fe and by 1.55% for D + 50Fe. Emission of regulated parameters, i.e., hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission, shows a reducing trend. Volumetric reduction in the emissions of HC by 3–6%, CO by 6–12%, and NOx by 4–11.16% is observed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041003-041003-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038738.

In the present study, laminar forced convective nanofluid flow over a backward-facing step was numerically investigated. The bottom wall downstream of the step was flexible, and finite element method was used to solve the governing equations. The numerical simulation was performed for a range of Reynolds number (between 25 and 250), elastic modulus of the flexible wall (between 104 and 106), and solid particle volume fraction (between 0 and 0.035). It was observed that the flexibility of the bottom wall results in the variation of the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the backward-facing step problem. As the value of Reynolds number and solid particle volume fraction enhances, local and average heat transfer rates increase. At the highest value of Reynolds number, heat transfer rate is higher for the case with the wall having lowest value of elastic modulus whereas the situation is reversed for other value of Reynolds number. Average Nusselt number reduces by about 9.21% and increases by about 6.1% for the flexible wall with the lowest elastic modulus as compared to a rigid bottom wall for Reynolds number of 25 and 250. Adding nano-additives to the base fluid results in higher heat transfer enhancements. Average heat transfer rates enhance by about 35.72% and 35.32% at the highest solid particle volume fraction as compared to nanofluid with solid volume fraction of 0.01 for the case with wall at the lowest and highest elastic modulus. A polynomial type correlation for the average Nusselt number along the flexible hot wall was proposed, which is dependent on the elastic modulus and solid particle volume fraction. The results of this study are useful for many thermal engineering problems where flow separation and reattachment coupled with heat transfer occur. Control of convective heat transfer for such configurations with wall flexibility and nanoparticle inclusion to the base fluid was aimed in this study to find the effects of various pertinent parameters for heat transfer enhancement.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041004-041004-11. doi:10.1115/1.4038709.

This study investigates the potential of oxygenated additive (ethanol) on adulterated diesel fuel on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine. Based on the engine experimental data, two artificial intelligence (AI) models, viz., artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), have been modeled for predicting brake thermal efficiency (Bth), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) with engine load (%), kerosene (vol %), and ethanol (vol %) as input parameters. Both the proposed AI models have the capacity for predicting input–output paradigms of diesel–kerosene–ethanol (diesosenol) blends with high accuracy. A (3–9–5) topology with Levenberg–Marquardt feed forward back propagation (trainlm) learning algorithm has been observed to be the ideal model for ANN. The comparative study of the two AI models demonstrated that ANFIS predicted results have higher accuracy than the ANN with a maximum RANFIS/RANN value of 1.000534.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041005-041005-10. doi:10.1115/1.4038988.

Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collector (PTC) is an efficient and feasible option for solar thermal power generation as well as for industrial process heat supply. The two-phase flow inside the absorber tube complicates the thermo-hydraulic modeling of the DSG process. In the present work, a thermo-hydraulic model is developed for the DSG process in the receiver of a solar PTC. The two-phase flow in the evaporating section is analyzed using two empirical correlations of heat transfer and pressure drop, and a flow map integrated heat transfer and pressure drop model. The results of the thermo-hydraulic simulation using different two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop correlations were compared with experimental data from the direct solar steam (DISS) test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), Spain. The test facility has collectors with aperture width of 5.76 m, focal length of 1.71 m, and absorber tube with inner and outer diameters of 50 mm and 70 mm, respectively. The simulation results using the aforementioned two-phase models were found to be satisfactory and consistent within the experimental uncertainty. The flow map based heat transfer model predicted the mean fluid temperature with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.45% and 1.40%, for the cases considered in the present study. Whereas the flow pattern map based pressure drop model predicts the variation of pressure along the length of the collector with RMSE of 0.5% and 0.14%. Moreover, the flow pattern map based model predicts the different flow regimes paving a better understanding of the two-phase flow and helps in identifying the critical sections along the collector length.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041006-041006-17. doi:10.1115/1.4038989.

Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation method to investigate bubble dynamics, two-phase flow patterns, and boiling heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using a finite volume (FV) numerical method, while the liquid–vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the volume of fluid (VOF) technique. The effects of different constant wall heat fluxes and different channel heights on the boiling mechanisms were investigated. The effects of liquid velocity on the bubble departure diameter were also analyzed. The predicted bubble shapes and distribution profiles together with two-phase flow patterns are also provided.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041007-041007-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039302.

This paper explores the effects of porosity, pore size, and ligament geometry in metal foams on its fluid flow capability. The motivation to understand this phenomenon stems from exploring the use of metal foams for thermal energy dissipation applications where both thermal convection and fluid flow are desired. The goal of this research is to identify the optimum configuration of metal foam design parameters for maximum flow. To study the impacts of said parameters, an experimental study of air flow through open cell metal foams is performed. Seven foam blocks were used in this partial factorial study, representing varying materials, pore size, and porosity. Wind tunnel tests are performed to measure the velocity of air flowing through the foam as a function of the free stream air velocity. Multinomial logit regression was performed to analyze the effects of the design parameters on velocity loss through the foam. Results indicate that effect of porosity on velocity loss is significant while that of pore size is insignificant. However, one test result did not fit this trend and further investigation revealed that this was due to varying ligament geometry in outlier metal foam. The cross section shape of the ligaments varied from a convex triangular shape to a triangle shape with concave surfaces, increasing the amount of drag in the airflow through the sample.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041008-041008-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039088.

A microchannel heat sink with convergent-divergent (CD) shape and bifurcation is presented, and flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for Re ranging from 120 to 900. The three-dimensional governing equations for the conjugate heat transfer with temperature-dependent solid and fluid properties are solved using the finite volume method. Comparisons are carried out for four cases, namely, rectangular shape with and without bifurcation and CD shape with and without bifurcation. The pressure drop, flow structure, and average Nusselt number are analyzed in detail, and the thermal resistance and overall performance are compared. It is shown that the CD shape with bifurcation has more uniform and lower temperature at the bottom wall and better heat transfer performance compared to other geometries. The heat transfer augmentation in the CD shaped microchannel with bifurcation can be attributed not only to the accelerated and redirected flow toward the constant cross section segment but also to periodically interrupted and redeveloped thermal boundary-layers due to bifurcation. It is also shown that increasing Re leads to thinning of thermal boundary-layers resulting in an enhanced heat transfer in terms of an increased average Nusselt number from 38% to 74%. However, there is an increased pressure drop due to channel shape and obstacle in fluid flow. Further, due to a high pressure drop penalty at high Re, CD shaped microchannel with bifurcation loses its heat transfer effectiveness.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041009-041009-13. doi:10.1115/1.4039055.

The flame behavior and the thermal structure of gaseous fuel jets issued from rectangular nozzles of high and low aspect ratios with co-flowing air were experimentally studied. Two rectangular nozzles with aspect ratios AR = 36 and 3.27 and with side channels for co-flowing air were examined. Flame behaviors were studied by photography techniques. Flame temperatures were measured using a fine-wire thermocouple. The AR = 36 burner exhibited three characteristic flame modes: attached flame, transitional flame, and lifted flame. The AR = 3.27 burner presented three characteristic flame modes: diffusion flame, transitional flame, and triple-layered flame. High AR jets promoted entrainment and mixing in the region around the flame base, whereas low AR jets enhanced mixing in the regions along the flame edges. At low co-flows, at Rec < 1200, the low AR burner flames were shorter, but at Rec > 1200, the high AR burner flames became shorter and wider. At Rec > 950, the high AR burner recorded higher flame temperatures, compared to the low AR burner by over 100 °C. At high fuel jet Reynolds numbers and moderate co-flow, high AR burner flames presented better combustion performances when compared to low AR jet flames. The good combustion performance of the high AR jet flames was due to enhanced entrainment and mixing, which were induced by flame lifting. However, at low Rec and high co-flow, the low AR jet flames exhibited desirable flame characteristics due to improved entrainment and turbulence at the jet interfaces.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041010-041010-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039304.

Exhaust gas heat recovery is one of the interesting thermal management strategies that aim to improve the cold start of the engine and thus reduce its fuel consumption. In this work, an overview of the heat exchanger used as well as the experimental setup and the different tests will be presented first. Then numerical simulations were run to assess and valorize the exhaust gas heat recovery strategy. The application was divided into three parts: an indirect heating of the oil with the coolant as a medium fluid, a direct heating of the oil, and direct heating of the oil and the coolant. Different ideas were tested over five different driving cycles: New European driving cycle (NEDC), worldwide harmonized light duty driving test cycle (WLTC), common Artemis driving cycle (CADC) (urban and highway), and one in-house developed cycle. The simulations were performed over two ambient temperatures. Different configurations were proposed to control the engine's lubricant maximum temperature. Results concerning the temperature profiles as well as the assessment of fuel consumption were stated for each case.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041011-041011-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039701.

A novel approach is proposed for precise control of two-phase spray evaporative cooling for thermal management of road vehicle internal combustion (IC) engines. A reduced-order plant model is first constructed by combining published spray evaporative cooling correlations with approximate governing heat transfer equations appropriate for IC engine thermal management. Control requirements are specified to allow several objectives to be met simultaneously under different load conditions. A control system is proposed and modeled in abstract form to achieve spray evaporative cooling of a gasoline engine, with simplifying assumptions made about the characteristics of the coolant pump, spray nozzle, and condenser. The system effectiveness is tested by simulation to establish its ability to meet key requirements, particularly concerned with precision control during transients resulting from rapid engine load variation. The results confirm the robustness of the proposed control strategy in accurately tracking a specified temperature profile at various constant load conditions, and also in the presence of realistic transient load variation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041012-041012-14. doi:10.1115/1.4039300.

Numerical results on laminar mixed convective heat transfer phenomenon between a confined circular cylinder and shear-thinning type nanofluids are presented. The cylinder is placed horizontally in a confined channel through which nanofluids flow vertically upward. The effect of buoyancy is same as the direction of the flow. Because of existence of mixed convection, governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations are simultaneously solved within the limitations of Boussinesq approximation. The ranges of parameters considered are: volume fraction of nanoparticles, ϕ = 0.005–0.045; Reynolds number, Re = 1–40; Richardson number, Ri = 0–40; and confinement ratio of circular cylinder, λ = 0.0625–0.5. Finally, the effects of these parameters on the streamlines, isotherm contours, individual and total drag coefficients, and local and average Nusselt numbers are thoroughly delineated. The individual and total drag coefficients decrease with the increasing both ϕ and Re; and/or with the decreasing both Ri and λ. The rate of heat transfer increases with the increasing Re, ϕ, Ri, and λ; however, at Re = 30–40, when ϕ > 0.005 and Ri < 2, the average Nusselt number decreases with the increasing Richardson number. Finally, correlations for the total drag coefficient and average Nusselt number are proposed as functions of pertinent dimensionless parameters on the basis of present numerical results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041013-041013-14. doi:10.1115/1.4039543.

Effective and robust high-temperature heat transport systems are essential for the successful deployment of advanced high temperature reactors. The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is a strong potential candidate for the intermediate or secondary loop of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) due to their high power density and compactness. For high-temperature PCHE applications, the heat loss, which is difficult to be insulated completely, could lead to the degradation of heat exchanger performance. This paper describes an analytical methodology to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs from experimental data, accounting for extraneous heat losses. Experimental heat exchanger effectiveness results, evaluated without accounting for heat loss, exhibited significant data scatter while the data were in good agreement with the ε-NTU method once the heat loss was accounted for. The deformation of PCHEs would occur during the diffusion-bonding fabrication process or high temperature operations due to the thermal deformation. Computational assessment of the PCHE performance test data conducted at the Ohio State University showed that the deformation of flow channels caused increase of pressure loss of the heat exchanger. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results based on the nominal design parameters underestimated the pressure loss of the heat exchanger compared to the experimental data. Image analysis for the flow channel inlet and outlet was conducted to examine the effect of channel deformation on the heat exchanger performance. The CFD analysis based on the equivalent channel diameter obtained from the image analysis resulted in a better prediction of PCHE pressure loss.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041014-041014-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039700.

This study deals with the film cooling enhancement in a combustion chamber by the use of rectangular winglet vortex generators (VGs). Rectangular winglet pair (RWP) in both the common-flow up and the common-flow down configuration is installed upstream of a coolant injection hole on the lower chamber wall. A three-dimensional numerical approach with complete solution of Navier–Stokes (NS) equations closed by the k–ɛ turbulence model is used for analyzing the effect of VG installation on film cooling effectiveness enhancement. The effect of RWP orientation is investigated to deduce the best configuration which is then optimized in terms of its geometrical parameters including its upstream distance from the hole and the angle it makes with the incoming flow. Results obtained show that a RWP located upstream of the coolant hole in common-flow down configuration gives the best effectiveness enhancement with certain other geometrical parameters specified. A novel “mushroom” adiabatic distribution scheme for film cooling effectiveness and temperature has been discussed in the paper. This characteristic scheme is developed as a result of RWPs' vortices interaction with the coolant inlet jet and the hot mainstream flow. A detailed discussion of the mechanisms and the flow field properties underlying the effectiveness enhancement and other phenomenon observed has also been presented in the paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041015-041015-6. doi:10.1115/1.4039354.

Paint-based protective films (PPFs) are used to protect condenser tubes from corrosion and erosion but have been shown to be susceptible to biofouling. Here, the biocidal properties of copper-oxide fillers incorporated into PPFs are explored in this paper. Specifically, two PPFs filled with 20% and 50% filler (by weight) are tested in parallel with a nonbiocidal ordinary epoxy PPF, and bare stainless steel tube. Using double-pipe co-current flow heat exchangers installed at a thermal power plant, actual cooling water exiting the condenser is evenly distributed between the test tubes. Heat transfer in the condenser is simulated by heated water flowing through each annulus of the double-pipe heat exchangers, thereby maintaining repeatable outer convection conditions. An exposure test of 125 days shows that the 50% biocide-filled PPF has the lowest fouling factor of all the tubes. The nonbiocidal epoxy has the highest fouling factor and the 20% filled PPF behaves similarly. Both of these are greater than the bare stainless steel control tube. The 50% filled PPF is compared to the fouling of an existing admiralty brass tube and the shapes of the fouling curves are similar. This evidence suggests that provided the filler concentration is sufficiently high, there is the potential for the copper-oxide filler to reduce the asymptotic composite fouling factor by virtue of its antibacterial properties.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041016-041016-7. doi:10.1115/1.4039459.

Cooling of electric machines is a key to increasing power density and improving reliability. This paper focuses on the design of a machine using a cooling jacket wrapped around the stator. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) between the electric machine stator and cooling jacket is a significant factor in overall performance and is not well characterized. This interface is typically an interference fit subject to compressive pressure exceeding 5 MPa. An experimental investigation of this interface was carried out using a thermal transmittance setup using pressures between 5 and 10 MPa. The results were compared to currently available models for contact resistance, and one model was adapted for prediction of TCR in future motor designs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041017-041017-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039633.

In this study, the influence of the applied magnetic field is investigated for magneto-micropolar fluid flow through an inclined channel of parallel porous plates with constant pressure gradient. The lower plate is maintained at constant temperature and the upper plate at a constant heat flux. The governing motion and energy equations are coupled while the effect of the applied magnetic field is taken into account, adding complexity to the already highly correlated set of differential equations. The governing equations are solved numerically by explicit Runge–Kutta. The velocity, microrotation, and temperature results are used to evaluate second law analysis. The effects of characteristic and dominate parameters such as Brinkman number, Hartmann Number, Reynolds number, and micropolar viscosity parameter are discussed on velocity, temperature, microrotation, entropy generation, and Bejan number in different diagrams. The results depicted that the entropy generation number rises with the increase in Brinkman number and decays with the increase in Hartmann Number, Reynolds number, and micropolar viscosity parameter. The application of the magnetic field induces resistive force acting in the opposite direction of the flow, thus causing its deceleration. Moreover, the presence of magnetic field tends to increase the contribution of fluid friction entropy generation to the overall entropy generation; in other words, the irreversibilities caused by heat transfer reduced. Therefore, to minimize entropy, Brinkman number and Hartmann Number need to be controlled.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041018-041018-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039702.

Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely applied in recent decades due to their good thermal performance in energy systems. Their applications are mainly limited by the phase change temperature and latent heat. Many publications are reported around the characteristic improvement of binary organic PCMs. The thermal stability study on organic binary PCMs used in thermal energy storage applications becomes fundamental and meaningful. In this study, thermal stability of three types of organic binary PCMs was experimentally investigated, which are frequently used in building and industry applications. To qualitatively investigate the stability of composite PCMs, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra testing of samples were also conducted. Experimental results showed that the selected composite PCMs, capric acid (CA), and myristic acid (MA), had the best thermal performances, with its phase change temperature unchanged and heat of fusion decreased only 8.88 J/g, or 4.55%, after 2000 thermal cycles. Furthermore, quality ratio of required PCMs as the variation of operation duration was analyzed to quantitatively prepare the materials. The PCMs can successfully operate about 3125 times when prepared as 1.20 times of its calculated value by starting fusion heat. Conclusions of this research work can also be used for guiding the selection and preparation of other energy storage materials.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):041019-041019-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040036.

The effect of fuel topology and control on thermal endurance of aircraft using fuel as a heat transfer agent was studied using an optimal dynamic solver (OPT). The dynamic optimal solutions of the differential equations governing the heat transfer of recirculated fuel flows for single- and dual-tank arrangements were obtained. The method can handle sudden jumps of operating conditions across different operating zones during mission and/or situations when control parameters have reached their physical limits. Although this method is robust in providing an optimal control strategy to prolong thermal endurance of aircrafts, it is not ideal for practical application because the method required iterative procedures to solve expensive nonlinear equations. The linear quadratic regulator (LQR), the feedback controller, can be derived by linearizing the adjoint equations at trim points to offer a simple control strategy, which can then be implemented directly in the feedback control hardware. The solutions obtained from both OPT and LQR were compared, and it was found two solutions were almost identical except in regions having sudden jump of operation conditions. Finally, a comparison between single- and dual-tank arrangements was made to demonstrate the importance of the flow topology. The study shows the dual-tank arrangement allows flexibility in how energy is managed and can release energy faster than a single-tank topology and hence provides improved aircraft thermal endurance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl. 2018;10(4):044501-044501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4038703.

Analysis of entropy generation in mixed convection flow over a vertically stretching sheet has been carried out in the presence of variable thermal conductivity and energy dissipation. Governing equations are reduced to self-similar ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and are solved numerically by applying shooting and fourth-order Runge–Kutta techniques. The expressions for entropy generation number and Bejan number are also obtained by using similarity transformations. The influence of embedding physical parameters on quantities of interest is discussed through graphical illustrations. The results reveal that entropy generation number increases significantly in the vicinity of stretching surface and gradually dies out as one move away from the sheet. Also, the entropy generation number decreases with an increase in temperature difference parameter. Moreover, entropy generation number enhances with an enhancement in the Eckert number, Prandtl number, and variable thermal conductivity parameter.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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