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Research Papers

Effects of Fe3O4/Water Nanofluid on the Efficiency of a Curved Pipe

[+] Author and Article Information
Milad Kelidari

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrood University of Technology,
P.O. Box 316,
Shahrood 3619995161, Iran

Ali Jabari Moghadam

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrood University of Technology,
P.O. Box 316,
Shahrood 3619995161, Iran
e-mail: jm.ali.project@gmail.com

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received December 14, 2018; final manuscript received June 22, 2019; published online July 15, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ali J. Chamkha.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 11(4), 041016 (Jul 15, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1667; doi: 10.1115/1.4044184 History: Received December 14, 2018; Revised June 22, 2019

Different-radius of curvature pipes are experimentally investigated using distilled water and Fe3O4–water nanofluid with two different values of the nanoparticle volume fraction as the working fluids. The mass flow rate is approximately varied from 0.2 to 0.7 kg/min (in the range of laminar flow); the wall heat flux is nearly kept constant. The experimental results reveal that utilizing the nanofluid increases the convection heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number in comparison to water; these outcomes are also observed when the radius of curvature is decreased and/or the mass flow rate is increased (equivalently, a rise in Dean number). The resultant pressure gradient is, however, intensified by an increase in the volume concentration of nanoparticles and/or by a rise in Dean number. For any particular working fluid, there is an optimum mass flow rate, which maximizes the system efficiency. The overall efficiency can be introduced to include hydrodynamic as well as thermal characteristics of nanofluids in various geometrical conditions. For each radius of curvature, the same overall efficiency may be achieved for two magnitudes of nanofluid volume concentration.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup and (b) curved test tubes

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Fig. 2

Nanofluid preparation

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Fig. 3

Variations of bulk temperature, Tb, for (a) water, (b) 0.2% nanofluid, and (c) 0.4% nanofluid; (d) surface temperature, Ts (in Re=660) in the small tube (d=15 mm,D=200 mm) for qs″≅12,700W/m2 and Tin≅16.5 °C

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Fig. 4

Variations of bulk temperature, Tb, for (a) water, (b) 0.2% nanofluid, and (c) 0.4% nanofluid; (d) surface temperature, Ts (in Re=660) in the large tube (d=15 mm,D=400 mm) for qs″≅12,700W/m2 and Tin≅16.5 °C

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Fig. 5

Variations of the heat transfer coefficient, h(x), along the tubes for qs″≅12,700W/m2 and Tin≅16.5 °C in the case of (a) nanofluids (in Re=660), (b) nanofluids (Re=930), and (c) water; (d) havg with Re

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Fig. 6

Variations of Nusselt number, Nu, with Re in (a) small (d=15 mm,D=200 mm) and (b) large (d=15 mm,D=400 mm) tubes for qs″≅12,700W/m2 and Tin≅16.5 °C

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Fig. 7

((a) and (b)) Values of pressure drop in the small (d=15 mm,D=200 mm) and large (d=15 mm,D=400 mm) tubes, respectively; (c) pressure gradient versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 8

Variations of the overall efficiency, η, with Re in (a) small (d=15 mm,D=200 mm) and (b) large (d=15 mm,D=400 mm) tubes for qs″≅12,700W/m2 and Tin≅16.5 °C

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