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Research Papers

Experimental Studies on Nanofluid-Based Rectangular Natural Circulation Loop

[+] Author and Article Information
Ramesh Babu Bejjam

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SASI Institute of Technology and Engineering,
Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh 534 101, India
e-mail: rameshbabubejjam@gmail.com

K. Kiran Kumar, Karthik Balasubramanian

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Institute of Technology,
Warangal 506 004, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received November 29, 2018; final manuscript received May 6, 2019; published online May 24, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ali J. Chamkha.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 11(4), 041006 (May 24, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1629; doi: 10.1115/1.4043760 History: Received November 29, 2018; Revised May 06, 2019

The main objective of the present study is to carry out experimental investigation on thermal performance of the nanofluid-based rectangular natural circulation loop (NCL). For this study, an experimental test rig is fabricated with heater as heat source, and tube in tube heat exchanger as heat sink. For the experimentation, three different nanofluids are used as working fluids. The nanometer-sized particles of silicon dioxide (SiO2), copper oxide (CuO), and alumina (Al2O3) are dispersed in distilled water to produce the nanofluids at different volume concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%. Experiments are carried out at different power inputs and different cold fluid inlet temperatures. The results indicate that NCL operating with nanofluid reaches steady-state condition quickly, when compared to water due to its increased thermal conductivity. The steady-state reaching time is reduced by 12–27% by using different nanofluids as working fluids in the loop when compared to water. The thermal performance parameters like mass flow rate, Rayleigh number, and average Nusselt number of the nanofluid-based NCL are improved by 10.95%, 16.64%, and 8.10%, respectively, when compared with water-based NCL. At a given power input, CuO–water nanofluid possess higher mass flow rate, Rayleigh number and Nusselt number than SiO2–water and Al2O3–water nanofluids due to better thermo-rheological properties.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Nanopowder and surfactant

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Fig. 3

Rheolab QC rotational Rheometer

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Fig. 4

Variation of viscosity with temperature

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Fig. 5

(a) Thermal conductivity analyzer and (b) 7552 Kapton sensor

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Fig. 6

Variation of thermal conductivity with temperature

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Fig. 7

Line diagram of the experimental test rig

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Fig. 8

Experimental test rig

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Fig. 9

Comparison of experimental results with published data

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Fig. 10

Transient response of NCL with different working fluids

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Fig. 11

Variation of mass flow rate with power input

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Fig. 12

Variation of mass flow rate with particle concentration

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Fig. 13

Variation of temperature difference at heater with power input

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Fig. 14

Variation of temperature difference at heater with particle concentration

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Fig. 15

Variation of Rayleigh number with power input

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Fig. 16

Variation of Rayleigh number with particle concentration

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Fig. 17

Variation of average Nusselt number at heater with power input

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Fig. 18

Variation of average Nusselt number at heater with particle concentration

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Fig. 19

Variation of pressure drop with power input

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Fig. 20

Variation of pressure drop with particle concentration

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Fig. 21

Variation of mass flow rate with cooling water inlet temperature

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Fig. 22

Variation of average Nusselt number with inlet temperature of the cooling water

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