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Research Papers

A Model for Bainite Formation at Isothermal Heat Treatment Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Gaganpreet Sidhu

School of Engineering Practice and Technology,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
e-mail: sidhug1@mcmaster.ca

Seshasai Srinivasan

School of Engineering Practice and Technology,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
e-mail: ssriniv@mcmaster.ca

Sanjiwan Bhole

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
Ryerson University,
Toronto, ON M5B2K3, Canada
e-mail: sdbhole@ryerson.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications. Manuscript received September 29, 2018; final manuscript received January 29, 2019; published online June 6, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ziad Saghir.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 12(1), 011006 (Jun 06, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1473; doi: 10.1115/1.4042861 History: Received September 29, 2018; Accepted January 30, 2019

An improved model is presented for the formation of bainitic structures during isothermal heat treatment conditions. The model based on displacive mechanism consists of a new expression for the volume fraction of bainite as a function of time, incorporating a temperature and chemical composition-based expression for the number density of initial nucleation sites and limiting the volume fraction of bainite. The model has been validated with respect to experimental data of high- as well as low-carbon steels. It has been found that the isothermal transformation kinetics is well predicted for all steels.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of the tuned value of ln(B) and the value obtained from Eq. (5). (b) Comparison of the experimental value of fmax with the predictions from Eq. (6).

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Fig. 2

(a) Performance of the model for the high-carbon steels, viz., Steel-1, Steel-2, and Steel-3, at T = 200 °C. These data are used for the development of the model. The symbols are the experimental values and the lines are the model predictions. (b) Performance of the model for some of the data of the three low-carbon steels, viz., Steel-4, Steel-5, and Steel-6, that are used for the development of the model. The symbols are the experimental values and the lines are the model predictions.

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Fig. 3

(a) Validation of the model for Steel-1, Steel-2, and Steel-3 at T = 250 °C. The symbols are the experimental data and the lines are the model predictions. (b) Validation of the model for Steel-4, Steel-5, and Steel-6 at different temperatures. The symbols are the experimental data and the lines are the model predictions.

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Fig. 4

Validation of the model for Steel-9 and Steel-10. These are Steel-2 and Steel-3, respectively, with a fine austenite grain size. The symbols are the experimental data and the lines are the model predictions.

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Fig. 5

Validation of the model for 12 steels at various isothermal transformation temperatures

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Fig. 6

Relative error of fmax as a function of the isothermal transformation temperature

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Fig. 7

Validation of the model for Steel-7 at two isothermal transformation temperatures. The symbols are the experimental data and the lines are the model predictions.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the bainite transformation kinetics of three steels (solid symbols) predicted by the present model (solid lines) and the earlier model by Sidhu et al. (Model-1, dotted lines) [17]

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