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Research Papers

Experimental Measurements and Numerical Computation of Nano Heat Transfer Enhancement Inside a Porous Material

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Z. Saghir

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department,
Ryerson University,
Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
e-mail: zsaghir@ryerson.ca

C. Welsford, P. Thanapathy, A. M. Bayomy, C. Delisle

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department,
Ryerson University,
Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications. Manuscript received September 3, 2018; final manuscript received November 5, 2018; published online June 6, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ibrahim Hassan.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 12(1), 011003 (Jun 06, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1432; doi: 10.1115/1.4041936 History: Received September 03, 2018; Accepted November 05, 2018

The rapid rate of improvement in electronic devices has led to an increased demand for effective cooling techniques. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of an aluminum metallic foam for use with an Intel core i7 processor. The metal foams used have a porosity of 0.91 and different permeabilities ranging from 10 pores per inch (PPI) to 40 PPI. The flow rate at the entrance of the porous cavity varied from 0.22 USGPM to 0.1 USGPM. The fluid consists of water with aluminum nanoparticles having a concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%. The heat fluxes applied at the bottom of the porous test cell vary from 13.25 W/cm2 to 8.34 W/cm2. It has been observed that nanofluid and forced convection improves heat extraction. These observations lead to the conclusion that heat enhancement is possible with nanofluid and it is enhanced further in the presence of a high flow rate. However, it was detected experimentally, verified numerically, and agreed upon by different researchers that higher heat extraction is found for a nanofluid concentration of 0.2%. This observation is independent of the porous permeability or applied heat flux. It has also been shown that heat enhancement in the presence of nanofluid is evident, when experimental results were compared to water.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Numerical model and boundary conditions

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Fig. 2

Experimental and numerical temperature distribution along the surface of the plate (κ = 10 PPI and c = 0.1%): (a) flow rate Q = 0.22 USGPM, (b) flow rate Q = 0.18 USGPM, (c) flow rate Q = 0.15 USGPM, and (d) flow rate Q = 0.10 USGPM

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Fig. 3

Experimental and numerical temperature distribution along the surface of the plate (κ = 40 PPI and c = 0.5%): (a) flow rate = 0.22 USGPM and (b) flow rate = 0.18 USGPM

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Fig. 4

Experimental and numerical Nusselt distribution along the surface of the plate (κ = 40 PPI and c = 0.5%): (a) flow rate = 0.22 USGPM and (b) flow rate = 0.18 USGPM

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Fig. 5

Nusselt distribution along the surface of the plate (Q = 0.18 USGPM and c = 0.2%): (a) κ = 20 PPI and (b) κ = 40 PPI`

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Fig. 6

Nusselt distribution along the surface of the plate (Q = 0.10 USGPM, κ = 10 PPI, and c = 0.3%)

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Fig. 7

Temperature distribution along the surface of the plate (Q = 0.10 USGPM, κ = 40 PPI, and c = 0.3%)

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Fig. 8

Nusselt distribution along the surface of the plate (Q = 0.15 USGPM and c = 0.4%): (a) κ = 20 PPI and (b) κ = 40 PPI

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Fig. 9

Heat transfer to the fluid for all cases (Q = 0.15 USGPM, κ = 40 PPI, and q′′ = 8.34 W/cm2)

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Fig. 10

Heat transfer to the fluid for all cases (Q = 0.15 USGPM, κ = 10 PPI, and q′′ = 10.38 W/cm2)

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Fig. 11

Heat transfer to the fluid for all cases (Q = 0.18 USGPM, κ = 40 PPI, and q′′ = 10.38 W/cm2)

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Fig. 12

Temperature variation at the thermocouple level at different concentration and location (Q = 0.1 USGPM, κ = 20 PPI, and q′′ = 13.25 W/cm2)

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