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Research Papers

Li-Ion Battery Pack Thermal Management: Liquid Versus Air Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Taeyoung Han

General Motors Global R&D,
30565 William Durant Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092-2031
e-mail: Taeyoung.han@gm.com

Bahram Khalighi

ASME Fellow
General Motors Global R&D,
30565 William Durant Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092-2031
e-mail: Bahram.khalighi@gm.com

Erik C. Yen

General Motors Global R&D,
30565 William Durant Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092-2031
e-mail: Erik.yen@gm.com

Shailendra Kaushik

General Motors Global R&D,
30565 William Durant Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092-2031
e-mail: Shailendra.kaushik@gm.com

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received June 29, 2018; final manuscript received September 20, 2018; published online November 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Pedro Mago.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 11(2), 021009 (Nov 05, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1335; doi: 10.1115/1.4041595 History: Received June 29, 2018; Revised September 20, 2018

The Li-ion battery operation life is strongly dependent on the operating temperature and the temperature variation that occurs within each individual cell. Liquid-cooling is very effective in removing substantial amounts of heat with relatively low flow rates. On the other hand, air-cooling is simpler, lighter, and easier to maintain. However, for achieving similar cooling performance, a much higher volumetric air flow rate is required due to its lower heat capacity. This paper describes the fundamental differences between air-cooling and liquid-cooling applications in terms of basic flow and heat transfer parameters for Li-ion battery packs in terms of QITD (inlet temperature difference). For air-cooling concepts with high QITD, one must focus on heat transfer devices with relatively high heat transfer coefficients (100–150 W/m2/K) at air flow rates of 300–400 m3/h, low flow induced noise, and low-pressure drops. This can be achieved by using turbulators, such as delta winglets. The results show that the design concepts based on delta winglets can achieve QITD of greater than 150 W/K.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of the cooling channels for the channel core products

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Fig. 2

Heat transfer coefficient for air and water [17]

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Fig. 3

Schematic of liquid cooling (microchannels)

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Fig. 4

Coolant temperature requirements for various QITD at various heat generation rates

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Fig. 5

Variation of QITD with volume flow rates for different h for air cooling concepts

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Fig. 6

Variation of QITD with volume flow rates for different h for liquid cooling concepts

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Fig. 7

Variation of QITD with various h for air cooling concepts

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Fig. 8

Variation of QITD with various h for liquid cooling concepts

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Fig. 9

Schematic of a vortex generator

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Fig. 10

Schematic of a battery pack with air-cooling system

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Fig. 11

Schematic of air-cooling design with delta winglets arrays

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Fig. 12

Schematics of the delta winglet with pertinent parameters

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Fig. 13

Computational domain for simulations

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Fig. 14

Battery cell temperatures

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Fig. 15

QITD and pumping power demand

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Fig. 16

Schematics of the cooling channels for the channel core products

Tables

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