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research-article

Li-ion Battery Pack Thermal Management ? Liquid vs Air Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Taeyoung Han

General Motors Global R&D, 30565 William Durant Blvd., Warren, Michigan 48092-2031 USA
taeyoung.han@gm.com

Erik Yen

General Motors Global R&D, 30565 William Durant Blvd., Warren, Michigan 48092-2031 USA
echyen@gmail.com

Bahram Khalighi

ASME Fellow, General Motors Global R&D, 30565 William Durant Blvd., Warren, Michigan 48092-2031 USA
bahram.khalighi@gm.com

Shailendra Kaushik

General Motors Global R&D, 30565 William Durant Blvd., Warren, Michigan 48092-2031 USA
shailendra.kaushik@gm.com

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041595 History: Received June 29, 2018; Revised September 20, 2018

Abstract

The Li-ion battery operation life is strongly dependent on the operating temperature and the temperature variation that occurs within each individual cell. The operating temperatures for optimal battery performance and hence, longer battery life occur in a very narrow temperature bandwidth which depends on the environments and the vehicle operations. Liquid-cooling is very effective in removing large amounts of heat with relatively low flow rates. On the other hand, air-cooling is simpler, lighter and easier to maintain. However, for achieving similar cooling performance, a much higher volumetric air flow rate is required due to its lower heat capacity. The main objective of this paper is to describe the fundamental differences between air-cooling and liquid-cooling applications in terms of basic flow and heat transfer parameters for Li-Ion battery packs in terms of QITD (Inlet Temperature Difference). The present study will help to assess the cooling requirements between air and liquid and thus the requirements for the coolant flow rate and the heat transfer coefficient. For air-cooling concepts with high QITD, one must focus on heat transfer devices with relatively high heat transfer coefficients (100 ~ 150 W/m2/K) at air flow rates of 300 ~ 400 m3/h, low flow induced noise, and low-pressure drops. This can be achieved by using turbulators such as delta winglets, The results show that the design concepts based on delta winglets QITD greater than 150 W/K.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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