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Research Papers

Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Ductile Iron Ladle During Holding and Teeming

[+] Author and Article Information
E. D. Gopala Krishna

Steel Making and Casting Research,
Research & Development and
Scientific Services,
Tata Steel Limited,
Jamshedpur 831007, India
e-mail: edgopalakrishna@tatasteel.com

Shaik Shamshoddin

Product Applications Research Group,
Research & Development and
Scientific Services,
Tata Steel Limited,
Jamshedpur 831007, India
e-mail: shamshosddin@tatasteel.com

Raghu Ande

Heat Power Engineering,
Birla Institute of Technology Mesra,
Ranchi 835215, India
e-mail: raghuande387@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received November 21, 2016; final manuscript received August 4, 2018; published online October 15, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ting Wang.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 11(1), 011007 (Oct 15, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1337; doi: 10.1115/1.4041341 History: Received November 21, 2016; Revised August 04, 2018

A 3D transient numerical model of a ductile iron ladle has been developed to predict the fluid flow and temperature drop during the holding and teeming. The volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model has been employed to track the interface between the liquid metal and the air. The SST k-ω model has been applied to model the turbulence due to natural convection in the ladle. The temperature evaluation in the refractory lining walls during preheating and teeming is shown. Appropriate boundary conditions are applied for natural convection and radiation to surroundings from all the outer steel surfaces as well as from the top glass wool cover. The heat loss due to radiation from the liquid metal surface to the surrounding walls is also considered in the present model by applying an energy sink term to the cells at the interface. The numerical results of the 780 kg ladle have been compared with the measured temperature drop of the metal using an S-type thermocouple for two ladle cycles and the difference between the measured and predicted temperature at the end of two cycles is 3 °C. Decreasing the ladle capacity to 650 kg for pouring the same amount of metal increased the temperature drop by 11 °C due to increase in surface area to melt volume ratio. Also increasing the refractory thickness for 650 kg ladle increased the temperature drop by 4 °C due to the heat accumulation in the ladle during the cyclic transient heat transfer process.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the sector ladle considered in this study: layers: (1) alumina castable 3 mm, (2) low alumina refractory brick, (3) alumina castable 5 mm, and (4) outer steel shell with 8 mm on curved surface and 12 mm on side walls

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Fig. 2

Computational domain of the sector ladle with boundary conditions

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Fig. 3

Temperature at the centerline of the ladle with height for three different mesh sizes

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Fig. 4

Ladle refractory wall temperature at the start of first cycle

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Fig. 5

Measured and calculated temperature distribution across the refractory walls at a height of y = 0.55 m from the point O(0,0,0) as shown in Fig. 2, after the first and second cycle, respectively

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Fig. 6

Initial temperature and volume fraction contours at the start (t = 0) of the second cycle showing the refractory preheating and residue metal

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Fig. 7

Radiation heat sink applied at the interface between the liquid metal and air

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Fig. 8

Temperature contours varying with time during the ladle operation of second cycle: (a) t = 20 s, (b) t = 27 s, (c) t = 45.6 s, (d) t = 107 s (after holding period before second pipe), (e) t = 128 s (end of second pipe), (f) t = 207.5 s (end of third pipe), and (g) t = 288 s (end of fourth pipe pouring)

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Fig. 9

Velocity vectors in the ladle varying with time for the second cycle: (a) t = 20 s, (b) t = 27 s, (c) t = 45.6 s, (d) t = 107 s, (e) t = 128 s, (f) t = 207.5 s, and (g) t = 288 s

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Fig. 10

Variation of volume fraction with time during the ladle operation: (a) t = 20 s, (b) t = 27 s, (c) t = 45.6 s, (d) t = 107 s, (e) t = 128 s, (f) t = 207.5 s, and (g) t = 288 s

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Fig. 11

Experimental and numerical metal temperature variation with time at a depth of 10 cm from the free surface

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Fig. 12

Refractory temperature variation across the thickness of different layers at y = 0.4 m from point O

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Fig. 13

Average heat flux density loss with time from the metal and the outer shell surface: (a) t = 20 s, (b) t = 27 s, (c) t = 45.6 s, (d) t = 107 s (after holding period before second pipe), (e) t = 128 s (end of second pipe ), (f) t = 207.5 s (end of third pipe), and (g) t = 288 s (end of fourth pipe pouring)

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Fig. 14

Temperature contours with time during the second cycle of 650 kg ladle: (a) t = 20 s, (b) t = 27 s, (c) t = 45.6 s, (d) t = 107 s (after holding period before second pipe), (e) t = 128 s (end of second pipe), (f) t = 207.5 s (end of third pipe), and (g) t = 288 s (end of fourth pipe pouring)

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Fig. 15

Temperature contours with time during the second cycle of 650 kg ladle with increased refractory thickness to 70 mm and 80 mm bricks

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