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Research Papers

Magnetohydrodynamics, Natural Convection, and Entropy Generation of CuO–Water Nanofluid in an I-Shape Enclosure—A Numerical Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Malekpour

Faculty of Engineering,
Shahrekord University,
P.O. Box 115,
Shahrekord 8818634141, Iran

Nader Karimi

School of Engineering,
University of Glasgow,
Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK;
School of Computing and Engineering,
Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Missouri-Kansas City,
Kansas City, MO 64110

Amirfarhang Mehdizadeh

School of Computing and Engineering,
Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Missouri-Kansas City,
Kansas City, MO 64110

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received October 10, 2017; final manuscript received July 20, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Editor: S.A. Sherif.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(6), 061016 (Sep 12, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1384; doi: 10.1115/1.4041267 History: Received October 10, 2017; Revised July 20, 2018

This paper presents a numerical study of the magnetohydrodynamics, natural convection, and thermodynamic irreversibilities in an I-shape enclosure, filled with CuO-water nanofluid and subject to a uniform magnetic field. The lateral walls of the enclosure are maintained at different but constant temperatures, while the top and bottom surfaces are adiabatic. The Brownian motion of the nanoparticles is taken into account and an extensive parametric study is conducted. This involves the variation of Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers, and the concentration of nanoparticles and also the geometrical specifications of the enclosure. Further, the behaviors of streamlines and isotherms under varying parameters are visualized. Unlike that in other configurations, the rate of heat transfer in the I-shaped enclosure appears to be highly location dependent and convection from particular surfaces dominates the heat transfer process. It is shown that interactions between the magnetic field and natural convection currents in the investigated enclosure can lead to some peculiarities in the thermal behavior of the system. The results also demonstrate that different parts of the enclosure may feature significantly different levels of heat transfer sensitivity to the applied magnetic field. Further, the analysis of entropy generation indicates that the irreversibility of the system is a strong function of the geometrical parameters and that the variations in these parameters can minimize the total generation of entropy. This study clearly shows that ignoring the exact shape of the enclosure may result in major errors in the prediction of heat transfer and second law performances of the system.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the physical model

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Fig. 2

Comparison between the present simulations with that of Ref. [61] for square enclosure filled by nanofluid

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Fig. 3

Comparison of the present simulation with those of Ref. [62] for square enclosure under different rotation angles of the magnetic field

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Fig. 4

Grid independency study (ϕ=0.04, Ha=40, andRa=105)

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Fig. 5

Streamlines for the enclosures filled with CuO–water nanofluid ϕ = 0.04(– – –) and pure water (——) at different Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers

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Fig. 6

Isothermlines for the enclosures filled with CuO–water nanofluid ϕ = 0.04(– – –) and pure water (——) at different Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers

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Fig. 7

Dimensionless vertical velocity profile at Y = 0.5, ϕ = 0.04, (a) Ra = 106, (b) Ra = 105, and (c) Ra = 104

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Fig. 8

Variation of average Nusselt number ratio with ϕ at Ha = 40

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Fig. 9

Variation of the total entropy generation with ϕ at (a) Ha = 0 and (b) Ha = 40

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Fig. 10

Effect of Hartmann number on the variation of the average Nusselt number ratio for different nanoparticle concentrations

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Fig. 11

Effects of Hartmann number on the variation of the total entropy at ϕ = 0.04

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Fig. 12

Effect of Hartmann number on the local Nusselt number at (a) Ra = 104 and (b) Ra = 106

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Fig. 13

Streamline (up) and isotherms (down). Ra = 106, ϕ = 0.04, and Ha = 40.

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Fig. 14

Effect of variation of the distance of the enclosure flaps, A, on the average Nusselt number, ϕ = 0.04, Ha = 40

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Fig. 15

Effect of the connector of the enclosure (the web) thickness, B, on the average Nusselt number, ϕ = 0.04, Ha = 40

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Fig. 16

Effects of variations in the distance of the enclosure flaps, A, on the total entropy generation, ϕ = 0.04, Ha = 40, and B = 0.4

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Fig. 17

Effects of the thickness of enclosure connector, B, on the total entropy generation, ϕ = 0.04, Ha = 40, and A = 0.4

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