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Research Papers

Working Fluid Selection and Technoeconomic Optimization of a Turbocompression Cooling System

[+] Author and Article Information
Derek Young, Spencer C. Gibson

Interdisciplinary Thermal Science Laboratory,
Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, CO 80524

Todd M. Bandhauer

Interdisciplinary Thermal Science Laboratory,
Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, CO 80524
e-mail: tband@colostate.edu

1Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1374 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received January 6, 2018; final manuscript received July 24, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Amir Jokar.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(6), 061017 (Sep 12, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4041197 History: Received January 06, 2018; Revised July 24, 2018

Low grade waste heat recovery presents an opportunity to utilize typically wasted energy to reduce overall energy consumption and improve system efficiencies. In this work, the technoeconomic performance of a turbocompression cooling system (TCCS) driven by low grade waste heat in the engine coolant of a large marine diesel generator set is investigated. Five different working fluids were examined to better understand the effects of fluid characteristics on system performance: R134a, R245fa, R1234ze(E), R152a, and R600a. A coupled thermodynamic, heat exchanger, and economic simulation was developed to calculate the simple payback period of the waste heat recovery system, which was minimized using a search and find optimization routine with heat exchanger effectiveness as the optimization parameter. A sensitivity study was performed to understand which heat exchanger effectiveness had the largest impact on payback period. Of the five working fluids examined, a TCCS with R152a as the working fluid had the lowest payback period of 1.46 years with an initial investment of $181,846. The R152a system was most sensitive to the two-phase region of the power cycle condenser. The R1234ze(E) system provided the largest return on investment over a ten year lifetime of $1,399,666.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Process flow diagram for a liquid coupled TCCS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the modeling approach. The thermodynamic, heat exchanger, and economic model are coupled to perform the optimization and minimize payback period.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cycle diagram of the TCCS with each heat exchanger divided into regions based on working fluid phase. The subscripts “sc,” “tp,” and “sh” represent subcooled, two-phase, and superheated, respectively.

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Fig. 4

Representative T-s diagrams for the (a) vapor compression refrigeration cycle and (b) organic Rankine power cycle where both use R134a. The engine coolant water flow, cooling seawater flow, and chilled water flow are overlaid.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Flow path and working fluid regions for a single plate in the power cycle boiling heat exchanger

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Fig. 6

Cross section of the flow path in the power cycle boiler with four refrigerant channels. The pressure drop through the single phase regions is the sum of major losses and minor losses. The minor losses are due to flow branching into the plates and the sudden contraction/expansion, while major losses are due to friction in the header and in the refrigerant channels. The gray regions represent flow area of hot engine coolant.

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Fig. 7

Breakdown of system cost for each working fluid. Payback period is denoted as “PP.”

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Fig. 8

T-s diagrams for a turbocompression cooling system with working fluid R134a designed to have a higher COP

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Fig. 9

Comparison of total system cost for the TCCS with R134a designed for energy efficiency and the system designed to have a minimum payback period. The high COP TCCS is 4.4 times more expensive than the low payback period system.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Cash flow after implementation of the TCCS over a 10-year period

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Fig. 11

Change in payback period as a function of changing heat exchanger effectiveness in the designated regions by 0.1. The three effectiveness regions with the greatest impact on payback period are shown.

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