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Research Papers

Analysis of Passive Temperature Control Systems Using Phase Change Materials for Application to Secondary Batteries Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Roberto Bubbico

Department of Chemical,
Materials and Environmental Engineering,
“Sapienza” University of Rome,
Via Eudossiana 18,
Rome 00184, Italy
e-mail: roberto.bubbico@uniroma1.it

Francesco D'Annibale

Laboratory for Development of Chemical and
Thermal Fluid Dynamic Processes for Energy,
ENEA,
Via Anguillarese 301,
Rome 00123, Italy
e-mail: francesco.dannibale@enea.it

Barbara Mazzarotta

Department of Chemical,
Materials and Environmental Engineering,
“Sapienza” University of Rome,
Via Eudossiana 18,
Rome 00184, Italy
e-mail: barbara.mazzarotta@uniroma1.it

Carla Menale

Department of Chemical,
Materials and Environmental Engineering,
“Sapienza” University of Rome,
Via Eudossiana 18,
Rome 00184, Italy
e-mail: carla.menale@uniroma1.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received January 22, 2018; final manuscript received May 9, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Steve Q. Cai.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(6), 061009 (Aug 20, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-18-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4040643 History: Received January 22, 2018; Revised May 09, 2018

Temperature control is one of the most significant factors to improve the performance and extend the cycle life of a battery. It is, therefore, important to design and implement an effective battery thermal management system (TMS). Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used as a cooling means for batteries. In the present paper, a preliminary analysis of the thermal behavior of PCMs used to cool down a heated metal surface was carried out. Tests have shown that pure PCMs are able to limit the temperature increase, but only for relatively low-heat fluxes. At higher values of the heat produced, the thermal conductivity of the PCM was increased by using solid foams characterized by higher thermal conductivity; it was, thus, possible to keep the surface temperature within safe limits for longer times. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the composite material (PCM + solid foam) was also developed, which allowed to predict the temperature trend within the system under different boundary conditions. However, the average thermal conductivity of the composite system that best fitted the experimental results was found to be much lower than that theoretically predicted by using common semiempirical correlations.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

The experimental setup

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Fig. 3

Solid foams: (a) SiC, porosity = 10 ppi; (b) Cu porosity = 10 ppi; and (c) Cu porosity = 50 ppi

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Fig. 2

Density of (a) A46 and (b) A43

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Fig. 1

Thermal conductivity of (a) A46 and (b) A43

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Fig. 5

Temperature profiles at the heating surface (TCu,s1), at the center of the PCM block (TPCM,c) and on the upper surface (TPCM,u). A43 (continuous lines) and A46 (dotted lines), q″ = 1200 W/m2.

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Fig. 6

Direct comparison of upper and lower surface temperatures for A43 and A46. q″ = 8800 W/m2.

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Fig. 7

Lower surface temperature increases for: A46 with and without Cu-10 ppi solid foam (hatch), A43 with and without Cu-10 ppi solid foam. q″ = 1200 W/m2. Bullets= melting points.

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Fig. 8

Ratio between lower and upper surface temperatures in A46, with and without solid foam

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Fig. 9

Temperature profiles on the heated surface for pureA46, A46 + SiC, A46 + Cu(10 ppi), A46 + Cu(50 ppi). q″=2726 W/m2.

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Fig. 10

Upper surface temperature profiles for pure A46, A46 + SiC, A46 + Cu (10 ppi), A46 + Cu(50 ppi); q″ = 2726 W/m2

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Fig. 11

Temperature increase ratio (Eq. (1)) for A46 with and without Cu foam, at two heat inputs (continuous 2726 W/m2, dashed 1200 W/m2)

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Fig. 12

Computational fluid dynamics models: (a) nodalization used for the 3D model, (b) nodalization used for the 2D model, (c) comparison of the temperatures at the heated surface for the 2D and 3D models; heat flux: 2726 W/m2, SiC foam (10 ppi)

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Fig. 13

Comparison between experimental and calculated temperatures at the heated surface of the PCM and on the upper surface, with thermal conductivity equal to kav,2: (a) A43 and (b) A46. Heat flux 1200 W/m2.

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Fig. 14

Comparison between experimental and calculated temperatures at the heated and upper surfaces of the PCM: (a) A43, k = 2 W/m K; (b) A46, k = 2 W/m K; (c) A43, k = 1 W/m K; and (d) A46, k = 1 W/m K

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