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Research Papers

Adaptive Thermal Conductivity Metamaterials: Enabling Active and Passive Thermal Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Austin A. Phoenix

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: Austin.Phoenix@nrl.navy.mil

Evan Wilson

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: Donald.Wilson@nrl.navy.mil

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received October 28, 2017; final manuscript received April 16, 2018; published online June 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Steve Q. Cai. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(5), 051020 (Jun 14, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1418; doi: 10.1115/1.4040280 History: Received October 28, 2017; Revised April 16, 2018

The novel adaptive thermal metamaterial developed in this paper provides a unique thermal management capability that can address the needs of future spacecraft. While advances in metamaterials have provided the ability to generate materials with a broad range of material properties, relatively little advancement has been made in the development of adaptive metamaterials. This metamaterial concept enables the development of materials with a highly nonlinear thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. Through enabling active or passive control of the metamaterials bulk effective thermal conductivity, this metamaterial that can improve the spacecraft's thermal management systems performance. This variable thermal conductivity is achieved through induced contact that results in changes in the F path length and the conductive path area. The contact can be generated internally using thermal strain from shape memory alloys, bimetal springs, and mismatches in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) or it can be generated externally using applied mechanical loading. The metamaterial can actively control the temperature of an interface by dynamically changing the bulk thermal conductivity controlling the instantaneous heat flux through the metamaterial. The design of thermal stability regions (regions of constant thermal conductivity versus temperature) into the nonlinear thermal conductivity as a function of temperature can provide passive thermal control. While this concept can be used in a wide range of applications, this paper focuses on the development of a metamaterial that achieves highly nonlinear thermal conductivity as a function of temperature to enable passive thermal control of spacecraft systems on orbit.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Copper and epoxy metamaterial design with a width of 6 cm, a length of 6 cm, and a thickness of 1 cm

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Fig. 2

Metamaterial design with low and high thermal conductivity materials for (a) initial structural configuration, (b) flat plate fem configuration, and (c) curved plate fem configuration

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Fig. 3

Metamaterial with normalized applied pressure loading and the resulting stress distribution

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Fig. 4

Thermal profile for the flat plate metamaterial configuration

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Fig. 5

Metamaterial with flat plates thermal conductivity as a function of temperature

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Fig. 6

Thermal distribution of curved metamaterial configuration as a function of contact area

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Fig. 7

Metamaterial thermal conductivity as a function of the applied loading

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Fig. 8

Resulting metamaterial (a) thermal conductivity as a function of contact length and (b) metamaterial stiffness as a function of contact length

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Fig. 9

Resulting design of the applied loading as a function of temperature

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Fig. 13

Resulting thermal conductivity study incorporating the contact resistance's impact on overall metamaterial conductivity

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Fig. 12

Resulting thermal conductivity study incorporating the radiative thermal path between the individual metamaterial plates for a bounding surface emissivity cases

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Fig. 11

Resulting metamaterial design for a given metamaterial geometry and prescribed loading as a function of temperature

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Fig. 10

Resulting metamaterial design for a given metamaterial geometry and a given temperature versus applied loading

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Fig. 14

Coupled metamaterial incorporating radiative and contact resistance effects

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