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Research Papers

Control of Spray Evaporative Cooling in Automotive Internal Combustion Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Jafari

Department of Engineering and Design,
School of Engineering and Informatics,
University of Sussex,
Falmer BN1 9QT, Brighton, UK
e-mail: S.Jafari@Cranfield.ac.uk

J. F. Dunne

Department of Engineering and Design,
School of Engineering and Informatics,
University of Sussex,
Falmer BN1 9QT, Brighton, UK
e-mail: j.f.dunne@sussex.ac.uk

M. Langari, J.-P. Pirault, C. A. Long, J. Thalackottore Jose

Department of Engineering and Design,
School of Engineering and Informatics,
University of Sussex,
Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT, UK

Z. Yang

Department of Engineering,
College of Engineering and Technology,
University of Derby,
Derby DE22 3AW, UK

1Present address: Centre for Propulsion Engineering, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing (SATM), Room No. 505A, Whittle Building (52), Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received March 22, 2017; final manuscript received January 30, 2018; published online May 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: W. J. Marner.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(4), 041011 (May 07, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1087; doi: 10.1115/1.4039701 History: Received March 22, 2017; Revised January 30, 2018

A novel approach is proposed for precise control of two-phase spray evaporative cooling for thermal management of road vehicle internal combustion (IC) engines. A reduced-order plant model is first constructed by combining published spray evaporative cooling correlations with approximate governing heat transfer equations appropriate for IC engine thermal management. Control requirements are specified to allow several objectives to be met simultaneously under different load conditions. A control system is proposed and modeled in abstract form to achieve spray evaporative cooling of a gasoline engine, with simplifying assumptions made about the characteristics of the coolant pump, spray nozzle, and condenser. The system effectiveness is tested by simulation to establish its ability to meet key requirements, particularly concerned with precision control during transients resulting from rapid engine load variation. The results confirm the robustness of the proposed control strategy in accurately tracking a specified temperature profile at various constant load conditions, and also in the presence of realistic transient load variation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Values of heat transfer coefficient in different cooling techniques, taken from Ref. [1]

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a spray cooling system and relevant parameters

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the spray cooling control structure

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Fig. 4

Simulink model for the spray cooling system with associated controller

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Fig. 5

Prescribed variations of (a) coolant-side wall temperature and (b) heat flux in the compatibility scenario

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Fig. 6

Variation of (a) coolant delivery temperature and pressure difference across the injector nozzle and (b) coolant mass flow rates in the compatibility scenario

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Fig. 7

Variations with time of the coolant-side and gas-side wall temperatures in the compatibility scenario

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Fig. 8

Prescribed variation of heat flux with time in the robustness scenario

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Fig. 9

Variation of (a) coolant delivery temperature and pressure difference across the injector nozzle and (b) coolant mass flow rates in robustness scenario

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Fig. 10

Variations with time of the coolant-side and gas-side wall temperatures in the robustness scenario

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Fig. 11

Prescribed variation with time of the coolant-side wall temperature and heat flux in the engine test scenario

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Fig. 12

Variations with time of (a) coolant delivery temperature and pressure difference across the injector nozzle and (b) coolant mass flow rates in the engine test scenario

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Fig. 13

Variations with time of the coolant-side and gas-side wall temperatures in the engine test scenario

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