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Research Papers

Study on Effects of Heat Loss and Channel Deformation on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Semicircular Straight Channel Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers

[+] Author and Article Information
Su-Jong Yoon

Idaho National Laboratory,
2525 Fremont Avenue,
Idaho Falls, ID 83415
e-mail: sujong.yoon@inl.gov

James O'Brien, Piyush Sabharwall

Idaho National Laboratory,
2525 Fremont Avenue,
Idaho Falls, ID 83415

Kevin Wegman

CBRNE Defense/Threat Assessment,
The Ohio State University,
201 W. 19th Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210

Xiaodong Sun

CBRNE Defense/Threat Assessment,
The Ohio State University,
201 W. 19th Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210;
Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received June 22, 2017; final manuscript received January 30, 2018; published online May 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Pedro Mago.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(4), 041013 (May 07, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1216; doi: 10.1115/1.4039543 History: Received June 22, 2017; Revised January 30, 2018

Effective and robust high-temperature heat transport systems are essential for the successful deployment of advanced high temperature reactors. The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is a strong potential candidate for the intermediate or secondary loop of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) due to their high power density and compactness. For high-temperature PCHE applications, the heat loss, which is difficult to be insulated completely, could lead to the degradation of heat exchanger performance. This paper describes an analytical methodology to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs from experimental data, accounting for extraneous heat losses. Experimental heat exchanger effectiveness results, evaluated without accounting for heat loss, exhibited significant data scatter while the data were in good agreement with the ε-NTU method once the heat loss was accounted for. The deformation of PCHEs would occur during the diffusion-bonding fabrication process or high temperature operations due to the thermal deformation. Computational assessment of the PCHE performance test data conducted at the Ohio State University showed that the deformation of flow channels caused increase of pressure loss of the heat exchanger. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results based on the nominal design parameters underestimated the pressure loss of the heat exchanger compared to the experimental data. Image analysis for the flow channel inlet and outlet was conducted to examine the effect of channel deformation on the heat exchanger performance. The CFD analysis based on the equivalent channel diameter obtained from the image analysis resulted in a better prediction of PCHE pressure loss.

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References

Mylavarapu, S. K. , 2011, “Design, Fabrication, Performance Testing, and Modeling of Diffusion Bonded Compact Heat Exchanger in a High-Temperature Helium Test Facility,” Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Yoon, S. J. , Wegman, K. , O'Brien, J. , Sabharwall, P. , and Sun, X. , 2016, “An Analytical Methodology to Evaluate Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Compact Heat Exchangers, Accounting for Heat Loss,” International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP-2016), San Francisco, CA, Apr. 17–20.
O'Brien, J. E. , Sabharwall, P. , and Yoon, S. J. , 2014, “A Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies ,” ANS Winter Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 9–13, Paper No. INL/CON-14-32433 https://inldigitallibrary.inl.gov/sites/sti/sti/6340998.pdf.
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Figures

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of heat balance of the heat exchanger considering heat losses

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Fig. 3

Layout of the OSU HTHF [1]

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Fig. 2

Straight pattern and z-pattern of etched plates: (a) cold channel and (b) hot channel [1]

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor system

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Fig. 18

Comparisons of the minor pressure losses (unit: Pa): (a) pressure loss at entrance on the cold side, (b) pressure loss at entrance on the hot side, (c) pressure loss at first bend on the hot side, (d) pressure loss at second bend on the hot side, (e) pressure loss at exit on the cold side, and (f) pressure loss at exit on the hot side

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Fig. 5

Two-plate CFD model of the OSU PCHE

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Fig. 6

Cross-sectional view of the mesh structure of semicircular single channel

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Fig. 7

The fully developed laminar/turbulent flow friction factor in a straight semicircular channel

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Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of two-plate CFD model and subregions to analyze local pressure losses

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Fig. 15

Heat exchanger effectiveness plotted as a function of NTU

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Fig. 16

Pressure profiles in the flow channels (case A): (a) the cold fluid side, (b) entrance region on the hot fluid side, (c) middle region on the hot fluid side, and (d) exit region on the hot fluid side

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Fig. 17

Velocity distributions at the bends on the hot side (case A): (a) at first bend on the hot fluid side and (b) at second bend on the hot fluid side

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Fig. 19

Fanning friction factor comparisons between the CFD result and experimental data: (a) cold fluid side and (b) hot fluid side

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Fig. 9

Absolute heat loss in the OSU PCHE experiment (○: cold fluid side, •: hot fluid side)

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Fig. 10

Ratio of heat loss to heat transfer rate in the OSU PCHE experiment (○: cold fluid side, •: hot fluid side)

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Fig. 11

Effectiveness-NTU plot of the OSU PCHE experiment

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Fig. 12

Comparison of averaged temperatures at the outlet (CFD versus experiment): (a) hot fluid side and (b) cold fluid side

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Fig. 13

Comparison of heat exchanger heat transfer rate (CFD versus experiment)

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Fig. 14

Comparison of heat exchanger effectiveness (CFD versus experiment)

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Fig. 21

Effect of channel diameter (case A) on (a) apparent pressure drop and (b) outlet temperature

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Fig. 22

Photograph of the channel at the entrance on the cold side

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Fig. 23

Comparisons of CFD result and experimental data based on measured mean channel diameters: (a) Fanning friction factor and (b) apparent friction factor

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Fig. 20

Comparisons between CFD result and experimental data based on the nominal channel diameter of 2.0 mm: (a) fanning friction factor and (b) apparent friction factor

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