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Research Papers

Multiscale Transient Modeling of Latent Energy Storage for Asynchronous Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrea Helmns

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94709
e-mail: ahelmns@berkeley.edu

Van P. Carey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94709

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received October 24, 2017; final manuscript received January 25, 2018; published online May 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Pedro Mago.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(5), 051004 (May 08, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1408; doi: 10.1115/1.4039460 History: Received October 24, 2017; Revised January 25, 2018

This paper establishes a multiscale design evaluation framework that integrates performance models for a thermal energy storage (TES) unit and a subsystem heat exchanger (HX). The modeling facilitates the analysis of transient input and extraction processes for the TES device which uses solid–liquid phase change to store thermal energy. We investigate sensible and latent heat transfer through the unit's matrix structure which contains phase change material (PCM) in the interstitial spacing. The heat transfer is driven by a temperature difference between fluid flow passages and the PCM matrix which experiences sensible heat transfer until it reaches the PCM fusion point; then it undergoes melting or solidification in order to receive, or reject, energy. To capture these physics, we establish a dimensionless framework to model heat transfer in the storage device much like effectiveness-number of transfer units (NTU) analysis methods for compact HX. Solution of the nondimensional governing equations is subsequently used to predict the effectiveness of the transient energy input and extraction processes. The TES is examined within the context of a larger subsystem to illustrate how a high efficiency design target can be established for specified operating conditions that correspond to a variety of applications. The general applicability of the model framework is discussed and example performance calculations are presented for the enhancement of a Rankine power plant via asynchronous cooling.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic depicting multiscale nature of problem ranging from the subsystem including the external heat exchanger to the TES device to the unit cell differential element (containing fins, PCM, and flow passage)

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Fig. 2

Thermal energy storage coupled with an external heat exchanger for cold extraction (left) and cold charging (right)

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Fig. 3

Comparison of analytical and numerical ϕ during extraction (Ntu = 52.88, Rwe = 0.47, and Stio = 0.05)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of analytical and numerical xe during extraction (Ntu = 52.88, Rwe = 0.47, and Stio = 0.05)

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Fig. 5

Predicted effectiveness variations with tend* and Ntu for Rwe = 1, Stio = 0.1, and θm = 0.5, and extraction starting from a completely frozen state or charging starting from a completely melted state with constant thermal properties

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Fig. 6

Predicted effectiveness variations with tend* and Rwe for Ntu = 10, Stio = 0.1, and θm = 0.5, and extraction starting from a completely frozen state or charging starting from a completely melted state with constant thermal properties

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Fig. 7

Predicted effectiveness variations with tend* and Stio for Ntu = 10, Rwe = 1, and θm = 0.5, and extraction starting from a completely frozen state or charging starting from a completely melted state with constant thermal properties

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Fig. 8

Dimensionless fluid and element temperature (ϕ, θ) and melt fraction (xe) profiles through space and time with case study parameters from Table 2. (a) Extraction process and (b) charging process.

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Fig. 9

Case study cycle consisting of precooling, storage, night cooling, and storage once more

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Fig. 10

24 h cycling of a 1.5 TJ TES device and subsystem with case study parameters from Tables 1 and 2

Tables

Errata

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