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Research Papers

Effects of Metal Foam Porosity, Pore Size, and Ligament Geometry on Fluid Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Beshoy Morkos

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Florida Institute of Technology,
150 West University Boulevard,
Melbourne, FL 32901
e-mail: bmorkos@fit.edu

Surya Venkata Sumanth Dochibhatla

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Florida Institute of Technology,
150 West University Boulevard,
Melbourne, FL 32901
e-mail: sdochibhatla2015@my.fit.edu

Joshua D. Summers

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Clemson University,
203 Fluor Daniel Building,
Clemson, SC 29634
e-mail: jsummer@clemson.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received July 6, 2017; final manuscript received November 6, 2017; published online April 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sandip Mazumder.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(4), 041007 (Apr 10, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1240; doi: 10.1115/1.4039302 History: Received July 06, 2017; Revised November 06, 2017

This paper explores the effects of porosity, pore size, and ligament geometry in metal foams on its fluid flow capability. The motivation to understand this phenomenon stems from exploring the use of metal foams for thermal energy dissipation applications where both thermal convection and fluid flow are desired. The goal of this research is to identify the optimum configuration of metal foam design parameters for maximum flow. To study the impacts of said parameters, an experimental study of air flow through open cell metal foams is performed. Seven foam blocks were used in this partial factorial study, representing varying materials, pore size, and porosity. Wind tunnel tests are performed to measure the velocity of air flowing through the foam as a function of the free stream air velocity. Multinomial logit regression was performed to analyze the effects of the design parameters on velocity loss through the foam. Results indicate that effect of porosity on velocity loss is significant while that of pore size is insignificant. However, one test result did not fit this trend and further investigation revealed that this was due to varying ligament geometry in outlier metal foam. The cross section shape of the ligaments varied from a convex triangular shape to a triangle shape with concave surfaces, increasing the amount of drag in the airflow through the sample.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Representative metal foam structure at (a) 50× magnification and (b) macroscale

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Fig. 2

Schematic of wind tunnel testing setup

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Fig. 3

Effect of porosity on velocity loss through foam samples (sample A4 removed)

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Fig. 4

Downstream velocity as a function of upstream velocity for each foam sample

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Fig. 5

Effect of porosity on velocity loss through foam samples

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Fig. 6

Effect of pore size on airflow loss through foam samples

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Fig. 7

Comparison of ligament geometry (resolution of scale = 1/64 in)

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Fig. 8

Ligament geometry in sample B1 (aluminum, 10 ppi, ε = 0.930)

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Fig. 9

Ligament geometry in sample B2 (aluminum, 20 ppi, ε = 0.930)

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Fig. 10

Ligament geometry in sample B3 (aluminum, 40 ppi, ε = 0.930)

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Fig. 11

Schematic representation of ligament cross section differences

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Fig. 12

Regression fitted plot of velocity loss versus porosity including 95% confidence (inner) and predictive (outer) band

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