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Research Papers

Computer Simulation of Heat Transfer in a Rotary Lime Kiln

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashish Agrawal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, UttarPradesh, India

P. S. Ghoshdastidar

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, UttarPradesh, India
e-mail: psg@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received December 13, 2016; final manuscript received November 11, 2017; published online March 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hongbin Ma.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(3), 031008 (Mar 28, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1370; doi: 10.1115/1.4039299 History: Received December 13, 2016; Revised November 11, 2017

In the present work, a steady-state, finite difference-based computer model of heat transfer during production of lime in a rotary kiln has been developed. The model simulates calcination reaction in the solid bed region of the rotary kiln along with turbulent convection of gas, radiation heat exchange among hot gas, refractory wall and the solid surface, and conduction in the refractory wall. The solids flow countercurrent to the gas. The kiln is divided into axial segments of equal length. The mass and energy balances of the solid and gas in an axial segment are used to obtain solids and gas temperature at the exit of that segment. Thus, a marching type of solution proceeding from the solids inlet to solids outlet arises. To model the calcination of limestone, shrinking core model with surface reaction rate control has been used. The output data consist of the refractory wall temperature distributions, axial solids and gas temperature distributions, axial percent calcination profile, and kiln length. The kiln length predicted by the present model is 5.74 m as compared to 5.5 m of the pilot kiln used in the experimental study of Watkinson and Brimacombe (1982, Watkinson, A.P. and Brimacombe, J. K., “Limestone Calcination in a Rotary Kiln,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 13B, pp. 369–378). The other outputs have been also satisfactorily validated with the aforementioned experimental results. A detailed parametric study lent a good physical insight into the lime making process and the kiln wall temperature distributions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a rotary lime kiln

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Fig. 2

Heat transfer processes in a rotary kiln

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Fig. 3

Surface elements of the wall and solid in an axial segment of the kiln

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Fig. 4

The grid in a cross section of the nonrotating kiln

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Fig. 5

Isotherms in the cross section at three axial locations, 0.574 m (left figure), 2.87 m (middle figure), and 5.166 m (right figure) from the gas inlet of a nonrotating kiln with stationary bed

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Fig. 6

Flowchart of the solution procedure

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Fig. 7

Axial solid and gas temperature distributions: Comparison with Watkinson and Brimacombe [2]

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Fig. 8

Axial percent calcination profile: Comparison with Watkinson and Brimacombe [2]

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Fig. 9

Axial solid and gas temperature profiles for different mass flow rates of the solid

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Fig. 10

Axial solid and gas temperature profiles for different mass flow rates of the gas

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Fig. 11

Axial solid and gas temperature profiles for different particle sizes

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Fig. 12

Axial solid and gas temperature profiles for different kiln inclination angles

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Fig. 13

Axial solid and gas temperature profiles for different kiln rotational speeds

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Fig. 14

Axial percent calcination profiles for different mass flow rates of the solid

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Fig. 15

Axial percent calcination profiles for different mass flow rates of the gas

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Fig. 16

Axial percent calcination profiles for different particle sizes

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Fig. 17

Axial percent calcination profiles for different kiln inclination angles

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Fig. 18

Axial percent calcination profiles for different kiln rotational speeds

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Fig. 19

Circumferential temperature distribution at the inner wall at axial position, z = 10% of the kiln length, for various kiln rotational speeds

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Fig. 20

Circumferential temperature distribution at the inner wall at axial position, z = 90% of the kiln length, for various kiln rotational speeds

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