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Research Papers

Effect of Bifurcation on Thermal Characteristics of Convergent-Divergent Shaped Microchannel

[+] Author and Article Information
Pankaj Srivastava

Instruments R & D Establishment,
Defence R & D Organization,
Dehradun 248008, India;
Department of Applied Mechanics,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas 110016, New Delhi, India

Anupam Dewan

Department of Applied Mechanics,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas 110016, New Delhi, India
e-mail: adewan@am.iitd.ac.in

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received July 20, 2017; final manuscript received January 6, 2018; published online April 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Matthew R. Jones.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(4), 041008 (Apr 10, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1263; doi: 10.1115/1.4039088 History: Received July 20, 2017; Revised January 06, 2018

A microchannel heat sink with convergent-divergent (CD) shape and bifurcation is presented, and flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for Re ranging from 120 to 900. The three-dimensional governing equations for the conjugate heat transfer with temperature-dependent solid and fluid properties are solved using the finite volume method. Comparisons are carried out for four cases, namely, rectangular shape with and without bifurcation and CD shape with and without bifurcation. The pressure drop, flow structure, and average Nusselt number are analyzed in detail, and the thermal resistance and overall performance are compared. It is shown that the CD shape with bifurcation has more uniform and lower temperature at the bottom wall and better heat transfer performance compared to other geometries. The heat transfer augmentation in the CD shaped microchannel with bifurcation can be attributed not only to the accelerated and redirected flow toward the constant cross section segment but also to periodically interrupted and redeveloped thermal boundary-layers due to bifurcation. It is also shown that increasing Re leads to thinning of thermal boundary-layers resulting in an enhanced heat transfer in terms of an increased average Nusselt number from 38% to 74%. However, there is an increased pressure drop due to channel shape and obstacle in fluid flow. Further, due to a high pressure drop penalty at high Re, CD shaped microchannel with bifurcation loses its heat transfer effectiveness.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Unit cell of convergent-divergent microchannel with bifurcation and (b) the cross section of single microchannel used in the computations

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Fig. 2

Microchannel unit cell with different geometries (a) rectangular, (b) rectangular with bifurcation, (c) convergent-divergent, and (d) convergent-divergent with bifurcation

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Fig. 3

Code validation with experimental results reported by Kawano et al. [5]

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Fig. 4

Velocity along the zx plane in the middle of fluid region along the channel length for Re = 144

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Fig. 5

Temperature and velocity contours along the flow direction in microchannel at Re = 144 (a) rectangular, (b) rectangular with bifurcation, (c) convergent-divergent, and (d) convergent-divergent with bifurcation

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Fig. 6

(a) Pressure drop along the channel length for Re = 144 and (b) pressure drop variation with Re

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Fig. 7

Variation in average fanning friction factor variation with Re

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Fig. 8

Temperature contours along the flow direction in channel at Re = 144: (a) rectangular, (b) rectangular with bifurcation, (c) convergent-divergent, and (d) convergent-divergent with bifurcation

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Fig. 9

Variation in average Nusselt number with Re

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Fig. 10

(a) Bottom wall temperature along the channel length at Re = 144 and (b) variation in bottom wall temperature with Re

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Fig. 11

(a) Variation in thermal resistance with Re and (b) variation in thermal resistance with pumping power

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Fig. 12

Variations of (a) normalized heat transfer coefficient with normalized pressure drop and (b) thermal performance ratio to normalized pressure drop for a microchannel with bifurcation

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