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Research Papers

Numerical Simulation of Forced Convective Boiling in a Microchannel

[+] Author and Article Information
Yun Whan Na

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

J. N. Chung

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: jnchung@ufl.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received May 4, 2017; final manuscript received October 30, 2017; published online April 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Pedro Mago.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(4), 041006 (Apr 10, 2018) (17 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1152; doi: 10.1115/1.4038989 History: Received May 04, 2017; Revised October 30, 2017

Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation method to investigate bubble dynamics, two-phase flow patterns, and boiling heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using a finite volume (FV) numerical method, while the liquid–vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the volume of fluid (VOF) technique. The effects of different constant wall heat fluxes and different channel heights on the boiling mechanisms were investigated. The effects of liquid velocity on the bubble departure diameter were also analyzed. The predicted bubble shapes and distribution profiles together with two-phase flow patterns are also provided.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Ebullition mechanism of nucleation and bubble growth and departure at an active cavity site

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Fig. 2

Bubble release frequency with the waiting time and the growth time

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Fig. 3

Physical model of a microchannel used in a computational simulation

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Fig. 4

Control volume used to discretize the governing equations

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Fig. 6

Measure the contact angle near the wall [34]

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Fig. 7

Liquid–vapor interface calculation using volume fraction in each cell. (a) Actual interface shape. (b) Interface shape represented by the geometric reconstruction scheme using piecewise-linear interpolation.

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Fig. 8

Calculation of volume flux through the face [36]

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Fig. 9

Grid system and boundary conditions used to simulate 2D two-phase flow boiling model. (a) Grid meshes with boundary conditions. (b) Schematic of fine grids and coarse grids and their interface in the inlet region.

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Fig. 5

Two-phase cell with an embedded phase interface

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Fig. 10

Computational procedure including mass transfer and phase change calculations

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Fig. 11

Wall temperature profiles at incipient boiling for different channel heights: (a) Hch = 1 mm and (b) Hch = 700 μm

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Fig. 12

ONB on a heated surface at different mass flow rates for Hch = 1 mm. (a) Upstream region at t = 67 ms for m˙ = 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s. (b) Downstream region at t = 68 ms for m˙ = 1.724 × 10−5 kg/s.

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Fig. 13

Effects of mass flow rate on wall temperature profile during incipient boiling at Hch = 500 μm

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Fig. 14

Effects of heat flux on wall temperature profile during incipient boiling for Hch = 300 μm

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Fig. 15

Wall temperature fluctuations while bubbles generate everywhere in a microchannel for Hch = 30 μm

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Fig. 16

Contour plots of vapor volume fraction at various simulation times for Hch = 30 μm at q″ = 500 kW/m2 and m˙= 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s. (a) Nucleate boiling at t = 16 ms, (b) bubbly flow at t = 21 ms, (c) bubbly flow at t = 22.4 ms, (d) elongated slug flow at t = 22.9 ms, (e) bubbly flow at t = 24 ms, (f) churn flow at t = 26 ms, (g) elongated slug flow at t = 31 ms, and (h) elongated bubble/slug flow from Wang et al. [41].

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Fig. 17

Bubble embryonic procedure in a microchannel with Hch = 700 μm at q″ = 500 kW/m2, m˙ = 1.724 × 10−5 kg/s and Re = 126 for different simulation times. (a) t0 + 0 ms, (b) t0 + 30 ms, (c) t0 + 30.5 ms, (d) t0 + 31.1 ms, (e) t0 + 40 ms, (f) t0 + 90 ms, (g) t0 + 119 ms, (h) t0 + 121 ms, (i) t0 + 121.2 ms, (j) t0 + 121.3 ms, (k) t0 + 122 ms, and (l) t0 + 126 ms.

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Fig. 18

Bubble embryonic procedure in a microchannel with Hch = 500 μm at q″ = 500 kW/m2, m˙ = 1.724 × 10−5 kg/s and Re = 162 for different simulation times. (a) t0 + 0 ms, (b) t0 + 6 ms, (c) t0 + 46 ms, (d) t0 + 56 ms, (e) t0 + 65 ms, (f) t0 + 66.5 ms, (g) t0 + 67 ms, (h) t0 + 67.1 ms, (i) t0 + 69 ms, and (j) t0 + 71 ms.

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Fig. 19

Bubble embryonic procedure in a microchannel with Hch = 300 μm at q″ = 500 kW/m2, m˙= 1.724 × 10−5 kg/s and Re = 223 for different simulation times. (a) t0 + 0 ms, (b) t0 + 51 ms, (c) t0 + 51.5 ms, (d) t0 + 51.6 ms, (e) t0 + 51.7 ms, (f) t0 + 51.8 ms, (g) t0 + 51.9 ms, and (h) t0 + 56 ms.

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Fig. 20

Bubble departure diameter variations for different channel heights at same heat flux and mass flux

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Fig. 22

Wall temperature and velocity profile for the upstream bubble in Fig. 21(d) with local dry-out for Hch = 30 μm at q″ = 500 kW/m2 and m˙= 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s. (a) Wall temperature variations beneath a bubble. (b) Liquid velocity variations beneath a bubble.

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Fig. 23

Wall temperature and velocity profile for the downstream bubble in Fig. 21(d) for Hch = 30 μm at q″ = 500 kW/m2 and m˙= 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s. (a) Wall temperature variations beneath a bubble. (b) Liquid velocity variations beneath a bubble.

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Fig. 24

Contour and vector plots of a vapor bubble in a microchannel with Hch = 300 μm for q″ = 500 kW/m2 and m˙= 1.724 × 10−5 kg/s at t = 375 ms. (a) Vapor volume fraction. (b) Vector plot around bubbles.

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Fig. 21

Contour plots of vapor volume fraction at various simulation times for Hch = 1 mm at q″ = 500 kW/m2 and m˙= 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s. (a) Isolated small bubbly flow at t = 500 ms, (b) bubble–bubble interaction at t = 580 ms, (c) bubbly flow from Wang et al. [41], (d) bubbly flow with coalescence at t = 600 ms, (e) dense bubbly flow from Wang et al. [41], (f) bubbly and elongated slug/semi-annular flow at t = 670 ms, and (g) elongated bubble/slug flow from Wang et al. [41].

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Fig. 25

Heat transfer coefficient variations with quality for different channel heights at q″ = 500 kW/m2 and m˙= 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s

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Fig. 26

Heat transfer coefficient variations with quality for different heat fluxes at Hch = 300 μm and m˙= 3.448 × 10−6 kg/s

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