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Research Papers

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Flow Mixing in Tunnel Kilns by Air Side Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
Adnan Ghareeb Tuaamah Al-Hasnawi

Electromechanical Engineering,
University of Technology,
Tal Muhammad 10066, Baghdad, Iraq
e-mail: adnan_tuaamah@yahoo.com

H. A. Refaey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra,
Benha University,
Cairo 11629, Egypt
e-mail: hassanein.refaey@feng.bu.edu.eg

T. Redemann

Institute of Fluid Dynamics
and Thermodynamics,
Otto von Guericke University,
Universitätsplatz 2,
Magdeburg 39106, Germany
e-mail: tino.redemann@ovgu.de

M. Attalla

Mechanical Power Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
South Valley University,
Qena 83521, Egypt
e-mail: moha_attalla@yahoo.com

E. Specht

Institute of Fluid Dynamics
and Thermodynamics,
Otto von Guericke University,
Universitätsplatz 2,
Magdeburg 39106, Germany
e-mail: eckehard.specht@ovgu.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received November 13, 2016; final manuscript received November 28, 2017; published online March 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sandra Boetcher.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(3), 031007 (Mar 28, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1328; doi: 10.1115/1.4038840 History: Received November 13, 2016; Revised November 28, 2017

The mixing of the two axial flows through the ware and through the gap between ware and walls using side nozzles in the preheating zone of tunnel kiln is investigated. The three-dimensional temperature field in the cross section between the two cars is calculated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool fluent. The mixing quality is evaluated using contours, the frequency of temperature distribution, and the maximum temperature difference. The influence on the mixing behavior of injection flow rate, injection velocity, nozzles position, and nozzle number has been analyzed. The results show that using two nozzles is more effective than one nozzle if the nozzles are installed at the opposite side walls with high vertical distance. The mixing quality increases strongly until an impulse flow rate (IFR) of about 4 N. For higher values, the influence becomes relatively low. The results for the mixing temperature obtained through CFD simulation compared with analytical results show a good agreement with maximum error of 0.5%.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Tunnel Kiln (a) longitudinal section (b) transverse section with injection

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Fig. 2

Schematic description of the used computational domain

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Fig. 3

Modeling done by ANSYS icem 14.0

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Fig. 4

Grid independence study for the computational domain

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Fig. 5

Comparison between theoretical and numerical mixing temperature

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Fig. 6

Temperature distribution for various injection velocities (winj) with 1% mixing ratio and one nozzle: (a) contours at x = 0 m ((i) winj = 34 m/s, (ii) winj = 53 m/s, (iii) winj = 94 m/s, and (iv) winj =203 m/s) and (b) temperature distribution at x = 1 m

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Fig. 7

Temperature distribution for various injection velocities (winj) at 1% mixing ratio and two nozzles: (a) contours at x = 0 m ((i) winj = 26 m/s, (ii) winj = 47 m/s, (iii) winj = 102 m/s, and (iv) winj =166 m/s) and (b) temperature distribution at x = 1 m

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Fig. 8

Influence of injection velocities (winj) on temperature difference for mixing ratio 1%

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Fig. 9

Temperature distribution for various nozzles positions (HR) at 2% mixing ratio and two nozzles: (a) contours at x = 0 m ((i) HR = 0.5, (ii) HR = 0.7, (iii) HR = 0.8, and (iv) HR = 0.9) and (b) temperature distribution at x = 1 m

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Fig. 10

Dimensionless temperature difference as a function of HR at different axial positions

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Fig. 11

Temperature distribution at main inlet and after 1 m from the side injection with (winj = 106 m/s) for several of mixing ratios

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Fig. 12

Temperature difference at (winj = 106 m/s) for several of mixing ratios

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Fig. 13

Temperature difference at mixing ratio 2%

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Fig. 14

Temperature difference as a function of IFR after half and 1 m from side injection

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