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Research Papers

Influence of Noncondensable Gases on Thermodynamic Control On-Ground Experiments Using a Substitute Fluid

[+] Author and Article Information
Samuel Mer

Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse,
UMR5502—CNRS and INPT and UPS,
Toulouse 31000, France
e-mail: samuel.mer@imft.fr

Jean-Paul Thibault

LEGI Laboratory—UMR5519,
Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS,
Grenoble 38000, France
e-mail: jean-paul.thibault@legi.cnrs.fr

Christophe Corre

LMFA Laboratory—UMR 5509,
Ecole Centrale de Lyon and CNRS,
Ecully 69134, France
e-mail: christophe.corre@ec-lyon.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received February 6, 2017; final manuscript received June 28, 2017; published online August 29, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ting Wang.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 10(2), 021006 (Aug 29, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-17-1032; doi: 10.1115/1.4037449 History: Received February 06, 2017; Revised June 28, 2017

A cryogenic propellant submitted to heat load during long duration space missions tends to vaporize to such an extent that the resulting pressure rise must be controlled to prevent storage failure. The thermodynamic vent system (TVS), one of the possible control strategies, has been investigated using on-ground experiments with NOVEC1230 as substitution fluid. Results obtained for self-pressurization (SP) and TVS control phases have been reported in a previous work. The unexpected inverse thermal stratification observed during these experiments is analyzed in the present work and related to the influence of noncondensable gases. Noncondensable gases, present inside the tank in the form of nitrogen—ten times lighter than the substitution fluid vapor—generate a concentration stratification in the ullage. Assuming the NOVEC1230 remains at saturation in the whole ullage, the density stratification which results from this concentration stratification can explain the observed inverse thermal stratification.

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References

Lin, C. , Van Dresar, N. T. , and Hasan, M. , 1991, “ A Pressure Control Analysis of Cryogenic Storage Systems,” AIAA Paper No. 91-2405.
Majumdar, A. , Valenzuela, J. , LeClair, A. , and Moder, J. , 2016, “ Numerical Modeling of Self-Pressurization and Pressure Control by a Thermodynamic Vent System in a Cryogenic Tank,” Cryogenics, 74, pp. 113–122. [CrossRef]
Kassemi, M. , and Kartuzova, O. , 2016, “ Effect of Interfacial Turbulence and Accommodation Coefficient on CFD Predictions of Pressurization and Pressure Control in Cryogenic Storage Tank,” Cryogenics, 74, pp. 138–153. [CrossRef]
Mer, S. , Fernandez, D. , Thibault, J.-P. , and Corre, C. , 2016, “ Optimal Design of a Thermodynamic Vent System for Cryogenic Propellant Storage,” Cryogenics, 80, pp. 127–137. [CrossRef]
Mer, S. , Thibault, J.-P. , and Corre, C. , 2016, “ Active Insulation Technique Applied to the Experimental Analysis of a Thermodynamic Control System for Cryogenic Propellant Storage,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 8(2), p. 021024. [CrossRef]
Hartwig, J. , Chato, D. , McQuillen, J. , Vera, J. , Kudlac, M. , and Quinn, F. , 2014, “ Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen,” Cryogenics, 64, pp. 295–306. [CrossRef]
Barsi, S. , and Kassemi, M. , 2013, “ Investigation of Tank Pressurization and Pressure Control—Part I: Experimental Study,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 5(4), p. 041005. [CrossRef]
Demeure, L. , 2013, “ Comportement Thermodynamique de Réservoirs d'ergols Cryogéniques,” Ph.D. thesis, Université de Grenoble, Grenoble, France.
3M, 2003, “ Novec 1230™3M—Product Information,” 3M, Maplewood, MN, Technical Report No. 98-0212-2667-9.
Bullard, B. , 1972, “ Liquid Propellant Thermal Conditioning Test Program Final Report,” Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Sunnyvale, CA, NASA Report No. CR-72971 https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720021137.
Barsi, S. , 2011, “ Ventless Pressure Control of Cryogenic Storage Tanks,” Ph.D. thesis, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......252B

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of a TVS controlled tank. The injection loop drives directly a subcooled jet inside the ullage. The vented branch creates the cold source heat sink.

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Fig. 2

Partially flayed computer-aided design view of the experimental apparatus

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Fig. 3

Schematic view of the experimental facility with its instrumentation, injection loop, and double envelope active insulation loop

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Fig. 4

Vertical temperature distribution in the fluid (the interface separates the two phases: ullage on top of the liquid bath),heating coil temperature, and wall temperature (double envelope) during a self-pressurization phase and for two different heat loads, Pc both for Tave = 57.5 °C

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Fig. 5

Inverse thermal stratification analysis during SP and more particularly for the SP experiment presented in Fig. 4 for Ph.l=52  W: temperature, molar fraction of each component, and density vertical distributions in the ullage (above the interface)

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Fig. 6

Influence of the heating mode on the temperature evolutions inside the tank during SP experiments with a tank filling of 66% and a fixed tank heat load of Ph.l.=42.5  W imposed by the two strategies presented in Sec. 2.1. The dashed line represent the model prediction.

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Fig. 7

Influence of the heating mode on the temperature vertical distribution inside the tank during SP experiments with a tank filling of 66% for an average temperature of 57.5 °C and a tank heat load of Ph.l.=42.5  W

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Fig. 8

Influence of the heating mode on the ullage thermal stratification analysis for the SP experiments presented in Fig. 7. Left: ullage components average molar fractions. Right: ullage components average density.

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the components average molar fraction in the ullage and evolution of the thermal power ratio during a TVS control experiment such that Tinj=40 °C, m˙inj=43 g s−1,F=66%, and Pc=26  W

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Fig. 10

Zoom on the first minute of the TVS experiment presented in Fig. 9

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Fig. 11

Subcooled injection influence on ullage average molar fractions and density vertical distributions during a TVS control experiment such that Tinj=40 °C, m˙inj=43  g s−1, F=66%, and Ph.l.=26  W

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