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Research Papers

Occurrence of Dry-Out Phenomenon in an Auto Refrigerant Cascade Refrigerator Operating With Zeotropic Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Gurudath Nayak

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India;
Ingersoll Rand Technologies and
Services Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore 560029, India
e-mail: Gurudath.Nayak@irco.com

G. Venkatarathnam

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received June 1, 2016; final manuscript received September 21, 2016; published online April 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ziad Saghir.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 9(3), 031012 (Apr 11, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1157; doi: 10.1115/1.4035940 History: Received June 01, 2016; Revised September 21, 2016

Auto refrigerant cascade (ARC) refrigerators are used extensively in the semiconductor manufacturing industry to provide refrigeration in the temperature range of 80–150 K. The performance of the ARC refrigerator depends on the mixture composition, operating pressures, etc. ARC refrigerators employ one or more liquid–vapor phase separators to separate the compressor lubricating oil and the condensed high boiling components and return to the compressor at an intermediate temperature to prevent freezing of the compressor lubricating oil and high boilers at low temperatures. However, dry-out of the phase separator can occur at some conditions. The phase separator dry-out phenomenon in ARC refrigerators has been studied experimentally with different mixtures and operating temperatures, the results of which are reported in this paper. The results of the studies show that the temperature difference between the streams at the cold end of the first heat exchanger can be used to reliably predict the dry-out of the phase separator.

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References

Venkatarathnam, G. , 2008, Cryogenic Mixed Refrigerant Processes (International Cryogenics Monograph Series), Springer, New York.
Gurudath Nayak, H. , and Venkatarathnam, G. , 2009, “ Performance of an Auto Refrigerant Cascade Refrigerator Operating in Gas Refrigerant Supply (GRS) Mode With Nitrogen–Hydrocarbon and Argon–Hydrocarbon Refrigerants,” Cryogenics, 49(7), pp. 350–359. [CrossRef]
Gurudath Nayak, H. , 2010, “ Studies on Auto Refrigerant Cascade Refrigerators,” Ph.D. thesis, IIT Madras, Chennai, India.
Podbielniak, W. J. , 1936, “ Art of Refrigeration,” U.S. Patent No. 2,041,725.
Kleemenko, A. P. , 1959, “ One Flow Cascade Cycle,” Tenth International Congress of Refrigeration, Copenhagen, Denmark, Vol. 1, pp. 34–39.
Boiarski, M. , Khatri, A. , and Podtcheniaev, O. , 2000, “ Modern Trends in Designing Small Scale Throttle Cycle Coolers Operating With Mixed Refrigerants,” Cryocoolers, 11, pp. 513–521.
Grezin, A. K. , Gromov, E. A. , and Zakharov, N. D. , 1975, “ Formulation and Optimization of the Refrigerant Composition for Throttling Cryogenic Systems,” Khim. Neft. Mashinostr., 11(9), pp. 787–790.

Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator operating in GRS mode and (b) schematic of ARC refrigerator experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Typical state of the refrigerant mixture at the entry and exit of the expansion device before evaporator (Tb = bubble point)

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Fig. 3

(a) Typical conditions at the entry and exit of the first heat exchanger represented on a T–h diagram and (b) corresponding temperature profiles of the streams in the first heat exchanger. Td represents the dew point temperature of the hot (high pressure) stream. State points 1, 2, 3, and 11 correspond to those at the warm and cold end of the first heat exchanger (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 4

Variation of phase separation temperature with applied heat load

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Fig. 5

Variation of temperature difference between the streams at the warm end of the first heat exchanger (HX-1) with applied heat load

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Fig. 6

Variation of temperature difference between the streams at the cold end of the first heat exchanger (HX-1) with applied heat load

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Fig. 7

Variation of internal exergy efficiency with refrigerant temperature at evaporator outlet

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