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Research Papers

Effects of Magnetic Field on the Phase Change Cells and the Formation of Ice Crystals in Biomaterials: Carrot Case

[+] Author and Article Information
Bin Liu

Tianjin Key Laboratory of
Refrigeration Technology,
Tianjin University of Commerce,
Tianjin 300134, China
e-mail: lbtjcu@tjcu.edu.cn

Jianfei Song

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Tianjin University of Commerce,
Tianjin 300134, China
e-mail: jianfei199181@126.com

Zhaodn Yao

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Tianjin University of Commerce,
Tianjin 300134, China
e-mail: 893358509@qq.com

Rachid Bennacer

LMT-Cachan/ENS-Cachan,
CNRS,
Universite Paris Saclay,
61, avenue du President Wilson,
Cachan 94235, France;
Tianjin Key Laboratory of
Refrigeration Technology,
Tianjin University of Commerce,
Tianjin 300134, China
e-mail: rachid.bennacer@ens-cachan.fr

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received May 22, 2016; final manuscript received November 7, 2016; published online April 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ziad Saghir.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 9(3), 031005 (Apr 04, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1138; doi: 10.1115/1.4035936 History: Received May 22, 2016; Revised November 07, 2016

In order to explore the effect of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) magnetic field (MF) on the biological (fruits and vegetables) phase transformation and ice crystal formation, we used carrot strips (0.5 × 0.5 × 1 cm3) and put them at low temperature control panel. The samples were frozen under AC and DC MF of 50 Hz with different intensities, i.e., 0, 0.46, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, and 7.2 mT. The ice crystals formation during the process of cell freezing was observed and recorded using the optical microscope, and the beginning and ending time of the phase transformation with the corresponding temperatures were determined. The results show that the DC and AC MF situations compared to non-MF can decrease ice crystal volume and be more flocculent. The changes will reduce the cell membrane damage rate. The increase of magnetic field intensity delays the phase change time and leads to a shorter phase transition duration, a reduction in the cells’s lowest noncrystallization temperature is also observed. Such changes in thermal dynamic process and size elementary freezing (rapid formation of small ice crystals) reduce the damage to the quality of fruits and vegetables.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The photograph of experiment system: 1, computer; 2, DC regulated power supply; 3, AC power supply; 4, Linkam controller; 5, liquid nitrogen tank; 6, Helmholtz coil; 7, microscope; 8, highway camera; 9, cold stage; 10, Tesla meter

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Fig. 3

The images of carrot cells at the end of freezing with different AC MFs: (a) AC-0.46 mT, (b) AC-0.9 mT, (c) AC-1.8 mT, (d) AC-3.6 mT, and (e) AC-7.2 mT

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Fig. 4

The images of carrot cells at the end of freezing with different DC MFs: (a) DC-0.46 mT, (b) DC-0.9 mT, (c) DC-1.8 mT, (d) DC-3.6 mT, and (e) DC-7.2 mT

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Fig. 5

The degree of subcooling of carrot cells frozen with different MFs

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Fig. 6

The phase change time of carrot cells with different MFs

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