Research Papers

Thermal Hydraulic Modeling and Analysis of Fusion Reactors Plasma Facing Components Using Alumina Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Filippo Genco

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department,
Alhosn University,
P.O. Box 38772,
Abu Dhabi, UAE

Giacinto Genco

Preparatory Science
and Engineering Program (PSEP),
King Fahd University of
Petroleum and Minerals,
P.O. Box 5026,
Dhahran, KSA

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received May 21, 2016; final manuscript received September 14, 2016; published online March 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ziad Saghir.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 9(3), 031003 (Mar 21, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1136; doi: 10.1115/1.4035924 History: Received May 21, 2016; Revised September 14, 2016

Damage to plasma facing components (PFC) due to high intense energy deposition during tokamak plasma instabilities is still considered one of the most serious and unresolved problem for the fusion reactors. Key plasma facing components as the divertor and the entire first wall during off-normal operations are generally subjected to high rate of deposition of energy, neutrons, and radiation leading generally to structural catastrophic failures including burnout of coolant tubes. The use of alumina nanofluids applied to future fusion reactors is proposed to, at least, mitigate some of the problems described providing better thermal performance during off-normal events. A 1D heat transfer model using the characteristics of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in common water is presented. Heat transfer of alumina nanofluid is modeled. Results obtained are critically compared with other well-known computer packages and experiments used to predict the coolant heat removal capabilities during longer quasi-steady state plasma instabilities events. Enhancements produced by the use of alumina nanoparticles are evident. Comparisons with both pure water and swirl tape inserts are carried out and critical heat flux (CHF) conditions are predicted showing good agreement with both published numerical and experimental data.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hassanein, A. , Sizyuk, T. , and Ulrickson, M. , 2008, “ Vertical Displacement Events: A Serious Concern in the Future ITER Operation,” Fusion Eng. Des., 83, pp. 1020–1024. [CrossRef]
Genco, F. , and Hassanein, A. , 2014, “ Simulation of Damage to Tokamaks Plasma Facing Components During Intense Abnormal Power Deposition,” Fusion Eng. Des., 89(4), pp. 335–341. [CrossRef]
El-Morshedy, S. , and Hassanein, A. , 2009, “ Transient Thermal Hydraulic Modeling and Analysis of ITER Divertor Plate System,” Fusion Eng. Des., 84(12), pp. 2158–2166. [CrossRef]
Rodig, M. , Duwe, R. , Linke, J. , Qian, R. H. , and Shuster, A. , 1997, “ Degradation of Plasma Facing Materials Due to Severe Thermal Shocks,” 17th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, San Diego, CA, Oct. 6–10, pp. 865–868.
Sizyuk, T. , Hassanein, A. , and Ulrickson, M. , 2013, “ Thermal Analysis of New ITER FW and Divertor Design During VDE Energy Deposition,” Fusion Eng. Des., 88(3), pp. 160–164. [CrossRef]
Hassanein, A. , 1996, “ Disruption Damage to Plasma Facing Components From Various Plasma Instabilities,” Fusion Technol., 30(3), pp. 713–719.
Hassanein, A. , Federicib, G. , Konkashbaevc, I. , Zhitlukhinc, A. , and Litunovskyd, V. , 1998, “ Materials Effects and Design Implications of Disruptions and Off-Normal Events in ITER,” Fusion Eng. Des., 39–40, pp. 201–210. [CrossRef]
Raffray, A. R. , and Federici, G. , 1997, “ RACLETTE: A Model for Evaluating the Thermal Response of Plasma Facing Components to Slow High Power Plasma Transients, Part I: Theory and Description of Model Capabilities,” J. Nucl. Mater., 244(2), pp. 85–100. [CrossRef]
Federici, G. , and Raffray, A. R. , 1997, “ RACLETTE: A Model for Evaluating the Thermal Response of Plasma Facing Components to Slow High Power Plasma Transients, Part II: Analysis of ITER Plasma Facing Components,” J. Nucl. Mater., 244(2), pp. 101–130. [CrossRef]
Hirai, T. , Ezato, K. , and Majerus, P. , 2005, “ ITER Relevant High Heat Flux Testing on Plasma Facing Surfaces,” Mater. Trans., 46(3), pp. 412–424. [CrossRef]
Smith, E. , and Pongjet, P. , 2004, Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Tube With Regularly-Shaped Helical Tape Swirl Generators, Elsevier, Kuala Lumpur, Thailand.
Watcharin, N. , Smith, E. , and Pongjet, P. , 2006, “ Effect of Twisted-Tape Inserts on Heat Transfer in a Tube,” 2nd Joint International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environment, Bangkok, Thailand, Nov. 21–23.
Sivashanmugam, S. , and Suresh, S. , 2007, “ Experimental Studies on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics of Turbulent Flow Through a Circular Tube Fitted With Regularly Spaced Helical Screw-Tape Inserts,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(8–9), pp. 1311–1319. [CrossRef]
Wiliams, W. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L. W. , 2008, “ Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss of Alumina/Water and Zirconia/Water Nanoparticle Colloids (Nanofluids) in Horizontal Tubes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 130(4), p. 042412. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. J. , McKrell, T. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L.-W. , 2008, “ Experimental Study of Flow Critical Heat Flux in Low Concentration Water-Based Nanofluids,” ASME Paper No. MNHT2008-52321.
Palm, S. J. , Roy, G. , and Nguyen, C. T. , 2006, “ Heat Transfer Enhancement With the Use of Nanofluids in Radial Flow Cooling Systems Considering Temperature Dependent Properties,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 26(17–18), pp. 2209–2218. [CrossRef]
Ezato, K. , Suzuki, S. , Dairaku, M. , and Akiba, M. , 2008, “ Critical Heat Flux Experiments Using a Screw Tube Under DEMO Divertor-Relevant Cooling Conditions,” Fusion Eng. Des., 83(7–9), pp. 1097–1101. [CrossRef]
Domalapally, P. K. , and Entler, S. , 2015, “ Comparison of Schemes for Cooling High Heat Flux Components in Fusion Reactors,” Acta Polytech., 55(2), pp. 86–95. [CrossRef]
Hassanein, A. , Sizyuk, V. , Miloshevsky, G. , and Sizyuk, T. , 2013, “ Can Tokamak PFC Survive a Single Event of Any Plasma Instabilities?,” J. Nucl. Mater., 438, pp. S1266–S1270. [CrossRef]
Das, S. K. , Putra, N. , Thiesen, P. , and Roetzel, W. , 2003, “ Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125(4), pp. 567–574. [CrossRef]
Barber, J. , Brutin, D. , and Tadrist, L. , 2011, “ A Review on Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement With Nanofluids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6(1), p. 281. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Coursey, J. S. , and Kim, J. , 2008, “ Nanofluid Boiling: The Effect of Surface Wettability,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(6), pp. 1577–1585. [CrossRef]
Das, S. K. , and Narayan, G. P. , 2008, “ Survey on Nucleate Pool Boiling of Nanofluids: The Effect of Particle Size Relative to Roughness,” J. Nanoparticle Res., 10(7), pp. 1099–1108. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , 2011, “ Enhancement of Critical Heat Flux in Nucleate Boiling of Nanofluids: A State-of-Art Review,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6(1), p. 415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jang, S. P. , Hwang, K. S. , and Lee, J.-H. , 2007, “ Effective Thermal Conductivities and Viscosities of Water-Based Nanofluids Containing Al2O3 With Low Concentration,” 7th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology, Hong Kong, Aug. 2–5, pp. 1011–1014.
Cabral, F. P. , and Ribatski, G. , 2010, “ Theoretical Modeling of Heat Transfer Flow Boiling of Nanofluids Inside Horizontal Micro-Scale Channels,” ENCIT, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil, Dec. 5–10, Paper No. 475.
Bang, I. C. , and Heo, G. , 2009, “ An Axiomatic Design Approach in Development of Nanofluid Coolants,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(1), pp. 75–90. [CrossRef]
Wen, D. , 2008, “ Mechanism of Thermal Nanofluids on Enhanced Critical Heat Flux (CHF),” Int. J. Heat Mass transfer, 51(19–20), pp. 4958–4965. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. J. , McKrell, T. , and Buongiorno, J. , 2009, “ Experimental Study of Flow Critical Heat Flux in Alumina Water, Zinc-Oxide Water and Diamond-Water Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 131(4), p. 043204. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , and Kim, M. H. , 2012, “ A Review on Critical Heat Flux Enhancement With Nanofluids and Surface Modification,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 134(2), p. 024001. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2001, “ A Theoretical Model to Predict Pool Boiling CHF Incorporating Effects of Contact Angle and Orientation,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123(6), pp. 1071–1079. [CrossRef]
Yu, L. , 2012, “ Thermal Transport of Nanofluids in a Minichannel,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Houston, Houston, TX.
Marshall, T. D. , 1998, “ Experimental Examination of the Post-Critical Heat Flux and Loss Flow Accident Phenomena for Prototypical ITER Divertor Channels,” Doctoral thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
Bergles, A. E. , and Ronhsenow, W. M. , 1964, “ The Determination of Forced Convection Surface-Boiling Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 86(3), pp. 365–372. [CrossRef]
Akaki, M. , Ogawa, M. , Kunugi, T. , Satoh, K. , and Suzuki, S. , 1996, “ Experiments on Heat Transfer of Smooth and Swirl Tubes Under One-Sided Heating Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(14), pp. 3045–3055. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , 1998, “ Heat Transfer Characteristics in Partial Boiling, Fully Developed Boiling, and Significant Void Flow Regions of Subcooled Flow Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120(2), pp. 395–401. [CrossRef]
Tong, L. S. , 1975, “ A Phenomenological Study of Critical Heat Flux,” ASME Paper No. 75-HT-68.
Dewitt, G. , Mckrell, T. , Buongiorno, J. , Hu, L. W. , and Park, R. J. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Critical Heat Flux With Alumina-Water Nanofluids in Downward-Facing Channels for In-Vessel Retention Applications,” Nucl. Eng. Technol., 45(3), pp. 335–346. [CrossRef]
Hassanein, A. , and Sizyuk, T. , 2008, “ Comprehensive Simulation of Vertical Instability Events and Their Serious Damage to ITER Plasma Facing Components,” Nucl. Fusion, 48(11), p. 115008. [CrossRef]
Majerus, P. , Duwe, R. , Hirai, T. , Linke, J. , and Rodig, M. , 2005, “ The New Electron Beam Test Facility JUDITH II for High Heat Flux Experiments on Plasma Facing Components,” Fusion Eng. Des., 75–79, pp. 365–369. [CrossRef]
Marshall, T. D. , McDonald, J. M. , Cadwallader, L. C. , and Steiner, D. , 2000, “ An Experimental Examination of the Loss of Flow Accident Phenomena for Prototypical ITER Divertor Channels of Y = 0 and Y = 2,” Fusion Technol., 37, pp. 38–53.
Das, S. K. , Putra, N. , and Roetzel, W. , 2003, “ Pool Boiling Characterization of Nano-Fluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46(5), pp. 851–862. [CrossRef]
You, S. M. , Kim, J. H. , and Kim, K. H. , 2003, “ Effect of Nanoparticles on Critical Heat Flux of Water in Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 83(16), pp. 3374–3376. [CrossRef]
Marshall, T. D. , Youchison, D. , and Cadwallader, L. C. , 2001, “ Modeling the Nukiyama Curve for Water-Cooled Fusion Divertor Channels,” Fusion Technol., 39(2), pp. 849–855.
Yan, J. , Bi, Q. , Cai, L. , Zhu, G. , and Yuan, Q. , 2015, “ Subcooled Flow Boiling Heat Transfer of Water in Circular Tubes With Twisted-Tape Inserts Under High Heat Fluxes,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 68, pp. 11–21. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow model for uniform one-sided heat flux to coolant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simulation comparison of wall heat response with varied plasma flux

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Predicted and experimentally measured wall temperature for plain tube with pure water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Predicted and experimentally measured wall temperature for swirl tape inserts Y = 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of the ONB point along the tube for different heat fluxes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of the ONB point along the tube for different heat fluxes (water only)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Simulation of wall heat response with varied plasma flux (water versus alumina nanofluid)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulation of CHF enhancement with alumina nanofluid and pure water into tube with swirl tape inserts




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In