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Research Papers

Streaming and Phase-Change Material Microcapsules-Based Mini/Microheat Spreader

[+] Author and Article Information
Zongqin Zhang

Research and Development Center
CANATAL Corporation,
Nanjing, Jiangsu 211102, China
e-mail: zhangzq@canatal.com.cn

Chang Liu, D. M. L. Meyer, Yi Zheng

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Applied Mechanics,
University of Rhode Island,
Kingston, RI 02881

Weixing Zhang

Research and Development Center
CANATAL Corporation,
Nanjing, Jiangsu 211102, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received March 4, 2016; final manuscript received September 7, 2016; published online December 7, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ranganathan Kumar.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 9(2), 021002 (Dec 07, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4034915 History: Received March 04, 2016; Revised September 07, 2016

Use of oscillatory flow and phase-change material (PCM) microcapsules to enhance heat transport efficiency in micro/minichannels is among many new concepts and methodologies that have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a novel and simple heat spreader design concept that integrates the technologies of oscillating flow streaming and PCM microcapsules. Phenomenon of the flow streaming can be found in oscillating, zero-mean-velocity flows in many channel configurations. The pumpless bidirectional streaming flow can be generated by heating instability oscillation or by displacement of a lead zirconate titanate diaphragm. Discrepancy in velocity profiles between the forward and backward flows causes fluid and PCM microcapsules, suspended in the fluid near the walls, to drift toward one end while particles near the centerline move toward the other end. Flow streaming is a common mechanism in many biological systems but an innovative feature for heat transfer devices. We conducted preliminary work on scale analysis and computer simulations of suspended PCM microcapsules streaming in mini/microbifurcation networks. Computer simulated microcapsules distribution patterns are verified by visualization experiments reported in the literature. This work demonstrates that flow streaming with PCM microcapsule entrainment has the potential to be used as a cost-effective technology for a heat spreader design.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Mechanisms of flow streaming in channels: (a) tapered channel and (b) bifurcating channel

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Fig. 4

Details of particle shifting patterns in mother and daughter tubes: (a) in mother tube after two cycles (t = 2 T, 6 s), (b) in mother tube after four cycles (t = 4 T, 48 s), (c) in mother tube after eight cycles (t = 8 T, 48 s), (d) in daughter tubes (t = 2 T, 12 s), (e) in daughter tubes (t = 4 T, 24 s), and (f) in daughter tubes (t = 8 T, 48 s)

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Fig. 5

Sketch of the streaming flow profiles: (a) streaming patterns evolving analysis and (b) streaming sketch by Haselton and Scherer [8]

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Fig. 6

Mean x-velocity profiles at selected cross sections

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Fig. 7

Particle trajectories of a typical planar bifurcating minichannel (MD-1): (a) after the first cycle (t = 1 T, 0.1 s), Re = 36; (b) after two cycles (t = 2 T, 0.2 s), Re = 36; (c) after four cycles (t = 4 T, 0.4 s), Re = 36; (d) after the first cycle (t = 1 T, 0.1 s), Re = 3.6; (e) after two cycles (t = 2 T, 0.2 s), Re = 3.6; and (f) after four cycles (t = 4 T, 0.4 s), Re = 3.6

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Fig. 8

Particle trajectories after the first cycle for three geometries under Re = 36: (a) MD-1, (b) MD-2, and (c) MD-3. Particle trajectories after two cycles for three geometries under Re = 3.6: (d) MD-1, (e) MD-2, and (f) MD-3.

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Fig. 3

Particle distribution—simulation versus experiments: (a) particle locations after the first cycle (t = 1 T), (b) particle locations after eight cycles (t = 10 T), and (c) experimental visualization [8] (t = 10 T)

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Fig. 2

Bifurcation tube model and grid convergence test: (a) model mesh and (b) transient mass flow rate versus time

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