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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Study on Optimizing the Dry Low NOx Micromix Hydrogen Combustion Principle for Industrial Gas Turbine Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Harald H. W. Funke

University of Applied Sciences,
Hohenstaufenallee 6,
Aachen 52064, Germany
e-mail: Funke@fh-aachen.de

Jan Keinz

University of Applied Sciences,
Hohenstaufenallee 6,
Aachen 52064, Germany
e-mail: Keinz@fh-aachen.de

Karsten Kusterer

B&B-AGEMA GmbH,
Juelicher Strasse 338,
Aachen 52070, Germany
e-mail: kusterer@bub-agema.de

Anis Haj Ayed

B&B-AGEMA GmbH,
Juelicher Strasse 338,
Aachen 52070, Germany
e-mail: ayed@bub-agema.de

Masahide Kazari

Corporate Technology Division,
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.,
1-1 Kawasaki-chi,
Akashi, Hyogo 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: Kazari_masahide@khi.co.jp

Junichi Kitajima

Corporate Technology Division,
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.,
1-1 Kawasaki-chi,
Akashi, Hyogo 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: kitajima_junichi@corp.khi.co.jp

Atsushi Horikawa

Corporate Technology Division,
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.,
1-1 Kawasaki-chi,
Akashi, Hyogo 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: horikawa_a@khi.co.jp

Kunio Okada

Corporate Technology Division,
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.,
1-1 Kawasaki-chi,
Akashi, Hyogo 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: okada_kunio@khi.co.jp

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received August 14, 2015; final manuscript received August 17, 2016; published online December 7, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ali Siahpush.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 9(2), 021001 (Dec 07, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1227; doi: 10.1115/1.4034849 History: Received August 14, 2015; Revised August 17, 2016

Combined with the use of renewable energy sources for its production, hydrogen represents a possible alternative gas turbine fuel for future low-emission power generation. Due to the difference in the physical properties of hydrogen compared to other fuels such as natural gas, well-established gas turbine combustion systems cannot be directly applied to dry low NOx (DLN) hydrogen combustion. The DLN micromix combustion of hydrogen has been under development for many years, since it has the promise to significantly reduce NOx emissions. This combustion principle for air-breathing engines is based on crossflow mixing of air and gaseous hydrogen. Air and hydrogen react in multiple miniaturized diffusion-type flames with an inherent safety against flashback and with low NOx emissions due to a very short residence time of the reactants in the flame region. The paper presents an advanced DLN micromix hydrogen application. The experimental and numerical study shows a combustor configuration with a significantly reduced number of enlarged fuel injectors with high-thermal power output at constant energy density. Larger fuel injectors reduce manufacturing costs, are more robust and less sensitive to fuel contamination and blockage in industrial environments. The experimental and numerical results confirm the successful application of high-energy injectors, while the DLN micromix characteristics of the design point, under part-load conditions, and under off-design operation are maintained. Atmospheric test rig data on NOx emissions, optical flame-structure, and combustor material temperatures are compared to numerical simulations and show good agreement. The impact of the applied scaling and design laws on the miniaturized micromix flamelets is particularly investigated numerically for the resulting flow field, the flame-structure, and NOx formation.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Micromix prototype combustor for gas turbine APU GTCP 36-300

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Fig. 2

Flame-anchoring characteristics and definition of recirculation areas

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Fig. 3

Major geometric parameters of the micromix burner

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Fig. 4

micromix jet in crossflow design and injection depth schematics

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Fig. 5

General test burner design (left) and high-power injection test burner (right)

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Fig. 6

Schematics of atmospheric test rig

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Fig. 7

Definition of measuring area, probe position, and thermocouple location

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Fig. 8

Optical flame appearance of established micromix flamelets at design point Φ = 0.40

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Fig. 9

Optical flame appearance of test burner at atmospheric testing

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Fig. 10

Comparison of experimentally analyzed NOx-characteristicsand calculated NO

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Fig. 11

Measured heat shield pack maximum front surface temperatures during testing

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Fig. 12

Measured temperature reduction over heat shield pack

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Fig. 13

Computational domain of flow-, flame-structure, and NO analysis

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Fig. 14

Computational domain of burner segment wall temperature calculations

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Fig. 15

Computational domain, close up to fuel injection region

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Fig. 16

Recirculation and vortex structure of atmospheric test burner

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Fig. 17

Temperature distribution on a burner midsection compared to optical flame appearance at the design point ϕ = 0.416

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Fig. 18

Temperature distribution on different axial sections at ϕ = 0.416

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Fig. 19

Numerically obtained heat shield pack surface temperatures at design point ϕ = 0.416

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