0
Research Papers

Experimental Study of Fluid Phase Equilibrium Along Thermodynamically Optimized Interface of a Stored Liquid Container

[+] Author and Article Information
Dibakar Rakshit

Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: dibakar@iitd.ac.in

Ramesh Narayanaswamy

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Curtin University,
Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia
e-mail: r.narayanaswamy@curtin.edu.au

K. P. Thiagarajan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maine,
Orono, ME 04469
e-mail: krish.thiagarajan@maine.edu

1Corresponidng author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received December 11, 2014; final manuscript received July 10, 2016; published online August 30, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Mohamed S. El-Genk.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(4), 041012 (Aug 30, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-14-1276; doi: 10.1115/1.4034255 History: Received December 11, 2014; Revised July 10, 2016

This experimental study presents the thermal optimization of a storage container partially filled with liquid (water) with an ullage region above the liquid composed of water vapor and air. The basic purpose of this thermal optimization was to qualitatively explore the design conditions that minimize the heat leaks from the storage tank to the external environment at a lower temperature than the liquid in the storage container. Two symbiotic physical parameters—interfacial mass transfer and the entropy generated by the system—influence the thermal performance of the storage container. These two symbiotic physical parameters were simultaneously considered when optimizing the system. The mass transfer estimation involved the determination of (i) the liquid–vapor interfacial temperature, (ii) the fractional concentration of the evaporating liquid present in the gaseous state, and (iii) the surface area of the liquid–vapor interface. The entropy of the system was estimated separately by considering the entropy of the diabatic saturated liquid and the ullage vapor. A synergistic objective function was subsequently composed based on the penalty involved in deviation from the individual optima, thus determining a holistic optimum. The results show that stored liquids exhibit better second-law efficiency in open containers than in containers that are closed by a lid. The primary factor that influences this optimum is the lid condensation that occurs in closed containers at the 50% filling level.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bejan, A. , 1979, “ A Study of Entropy Generation in Fundamental Convective Heat Transfers,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 101(4), pp. 718–725. [CrossRef]
Bejan, A. , 1980, “ Second Law Analysis in Heat Transfer,” Energy, 5(8–9), pp. 721–732.
Bejan, A. , 2001, “ A Thermodynamic Optimization of Geometry in Engineering Flow Systems,” Exergy Int. J., 1(4), pp. 269–277. [CrossRef]
Bejan, A. , 1982, Entropy Generation Through Heat and Fluid Flow, Wiley, New York.
Zimparov, V. , 2001, “ Extended Performance Evaluation Criteria for Enhanced Heat Transfer Surfaces: Heat Transfer Through Ducts With Constant Heat Flux,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44(1), pp. 169–180. [CrossRef]
Collado, F. J. , 2005, “ The Law of Stable Equilibrium and the Entropy-Based Boiling Curve for Flow Boiling,” Energy, 30(6), pp. 807–819. [CrossRef]
Vargas, J. V. C. , and Bejan, A. , 2000, “ Thermodynamic Optimization of the Match Between Two Streams With Phase Change,” Energy, 25(1), pp. 15–33. [CrossRef]
Gradon, L. , and Selecki, A. , 1977, “ Evaporation of a Liquid Drop Immersed in Another Immiscible Liquid the Case of σc < σd,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20(5), pp. 459–466. [CrossRef]
Raina, G. K. , and Wanchoo, R. K. , 1984, “ Direct Contact Heat Transfer With Phase Change: Theoretical Expression for Instantaneous Velocity of a Two-Phase Bubble,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 11(3), pp. 227–237. [CrossRef]
Raina, G. K. , and Grover, P. D. , 1985, “ Direct Contact Heat Transfer With Phase Change: Theoretical Model Incorporating Sloshing Effects,” AIChE J., 31(3), pp. 507–510. [CrossRef]
Raina, G. K. , and Grover, P. D. , 1988, “ Direct Contact Heat Transfer With Change of Phase: Experimental Technique,” AIChE J., 34(8), pp. 1376–1380. [CrossRef]
Fang, G. , and Ward, C. A. , 1999, “ Temperature Measured Close to the Interface of an Evaporating Liquid,” Phys. Rev., 59, pp. 417–428.
Fedorov, V. I. , and Luk'yanova, E. A. , 2000, “ Filling and Storage of Cryogenic Propellant Components Cooled Below Boiling Point in Rocket Tanks at Atmospheric Pressure,” Chem. Pet. Eng., 36(9), pp. 584–587. [CrossRef]
Kozyrev, A. V. , and Sitnikov, A. G. , 2001, “ Evaporation of a Spherical Droplet in a Moderate Pressure Gas,” Phys. Usp., 44(7), pp. 725–733. [CrossRef]
Scurlock, R. , 2001, “ Low Loss Dewars and Tanks: Liquid Evaporation Mechanisms and Instabilities,” Coldfacts, pp. 7–18.
Krahl, R. , and Adamo, M. , 2001, A Model for Two Phase Flow With Evaporation, Weierstrass-Institut for Angewandte Analysis and Stochastic, Berlin, p. 899.
Sasikumar, M. , and Balaji, C. , 2002, “ Optimization of Convective Fin Systems: A Holistic Approach,” Heat Mass Transfer, 39(1), pp. 57–68. [CrossRef]
Sasikumar, M. , and Balaji, C. , 2002, “ A Holistic Optimization of Convecting-Radiating Fin Systems,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 124(6), pp. 1110–1116. [CrossRef]
Rakshit, D. , and Balaji, C. , 2005, “ Thermodynamic Optimization of Conjugate Convection From a Finned Channel Using Genetic Algorithms,” Heat Mass Transfer, 41(6), pp. 535–544. [CrossRef]
Rakshit, D. , Vijayan, P. , and Balaji, C. , 2004, “ Multi Criteria Optimization of Conjugate Convection in a Rectangular Duct,” Int. J. Heat Technol., 22(1), pp. 137–144.
Rakshit, D. , Narayanaswamy, R. , and Thiagarajan, K. P. , 2015, “ Characterization of Interfacial Mass Transfer Rate of Stored Liquids,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 7(2), p. 21002. [CrossRef]
Bird, R. B. , Stewart, W. E. , and Lightfoot, E. N. , 2007, Transport Phenomena, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.
Nag, P. K. , 1996, Engineering Thermodynamics, Tata McGraw-Hill, New York.
Rohsenow, W. M. , Hartnett, J. P. , and Cho, Y. I. , 1988, Handbook of Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Coleman, H. W. , and Steele, W. G. , 1989, Experimentation and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.
Balaji, C. , Hölling, M. , and Herwig, H. , 2007, “ Entropy Generation Minimization in Turbulent Mixed Convection Flows,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 34(5), pp. 544–552. [CrossRef]
Pioro, L. , 1999, “ Experimental Evaluation of Constants for the Rohsenow Pool Boiling Correlation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 31, pp. 2003–2013. [CrossRef]
Liley, P. E. , 1984, “ Steam Tables in SI Units,” private communication, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Rakshit, D. , Narayanaswamy, R. , and Thiagarajan, K. P. , 2011, “ Estimation of Entropy Generation Due to Heat Transfer From a Liquid in an Enclosure,” ANZIAM J., 51, pp. 852–873. [CrossRef]
Burmister, L. C. , 1998, Elements of Thermal-Fluid System Design, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Chap. 4.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Diffusion of water vapor through air between two planes X1 and X2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of diabatic saturated two-phase liquid in stored container

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic setup of the test rig: (1—thermocouples; 2—conductivity probe at various test fill levels and top; 3—humidity sensing probe; 4—pressure transducer for measuring ullage pressure; 5—cartridge heaters)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mass transfer variation with filling levels for an open container

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mass transfer variations with filling levels for a closed container

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Model of the heat and mass transfer in the tank with characteristics zone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation of total entropy per unit volume with temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of entropy per unit volume in ullage with temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of nondimensional entropy generated with temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation of NM and 1/NS with temperature for open and closed tanks

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In