An effective design option for a cooling system is to use a two-phase pumped cooling loop to simultaneously satisfy the temperature uniformity and high heat flux requirements. A reciprocating-mechanism driven heat loop (RMDHL) is a novel heat transfer device that could attain a high heat transfer rate through a reciprocating flow of the two-phase working fluid inside the heat transfer device. Although the device has been tested and validated experimentally, analytical or numerical study has not been undertaken to understand its working mechanism and provide guidance for the device design. The objective of this paper is to develop a numerical model for the RMDHL to predict its operational performance under different working conditions. The developed numerical model has been successfully validated by the existing experimental data and will provide a powerful tool for the design and performance optimization of future RMDHLs. The study also reveals that the maximum velocity in the flow occurs near the wall rather than at the center of the pipe, as in the case of unidirectional steady flow. This higher velocity near the wall may help to explain the enhanced heat transfer of an RMDHL.