0
Technical Brief

An Analysis of the Quenching Performance of a Copper Nanofluid Prepared Using Laser Ablation

[+] Author and Article Information
M. P. Howson

EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in
Advanced Metallic Systems,
Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
The University of Sheffield,
Mappin Street,
Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
e-mail: mhowson1@sheffield.ac.uk

B. P. Wynne

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
The University of Sheffield,
Mappin Street,
Sheffield S1 3JD, UK

R. D. Mercado-Solis, L. A. Leduc-Lezama, J. Jonny, S. Shaji

Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica,
Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon,
San Nicolas de los Garza C. P 66455, Mexico

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received February 24, 2016; final manuscript received May 4, 2016; published online June 14, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Hongbin Ma.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(4), 044501 (Jun 14, 2016) (5 pages) Paper No: TSEA-16-1048; doi: 10.1115/1.4033619 History: Received February 24, 2016; Revised May 04, 2016

The quenching performance of a copper nanofluid (copper nanoparticles in de-ionized water), prepared using laser ablation, is compared to de-ionized water in both the still and agitated state. The nanoparticles significantly enhanced heat extraction in the still condition, increasing the average cooling rate within the critical temperature range for low alloy steel phase transformations (850–300 °C) from 152 °C/s to 180 °C/s, approximately the same rate as highly agitated de-ionized water. The nanofluid under low levels of agitation saw a decrease in quenching performance relative to the still condition, while higher levels of agitation showed similar levels of heat extraction to that of agitated de-ionized water. The losses of Brownian motion and microlayering mechanisms are suggested as potential causes for the reduction in the performance of agitated nanofluids.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Grum, J. , Božič, S. , and Zupančič, M. , 2001, “ Influence of Quenching Process Parameters on Residual Stresses in Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 114(1), pp. 57–70. [CrossRef]
You, S. M. , Kim, J. H. , and Kim, K. H. , 2003, “ Effect of Nanoparticles on Critical Heat Flux of Water in Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 83(16), p. 3374. [CrossRef]
Prabhu, K. N. , and Fernades, P. , 2008, “ Nanoquenchants for Industrial Heat Treatment,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 17(1), pp. 101–103. [CrossRef]
Dhir, V. K. , 1998, “ Boiling Heat Transfer,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 30(1), pp. 365–401. [CrossRef]
Dhir, V. K. , 1991, “ Nucleate and Transition Boiling Heat Transfer Under Pool and External Flow Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 12(4), pp. 290–314. [CrossRef]
Sedighi, M. , and McMahon, C. A. , 2000, “ The Influence of Quenchant Agitation on the Heat Transfer Coefficient and Residual Stress Development in the Quenching of Steels,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, 214(7), pp. 555–567. [CrossRef]
Fernandes, P. , and Prabhu, K. N. , 2007, “ Effect of Section Size and Agitation on Heat Transfer During Quenching of AISI 1040 Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 183(1), pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. , Choi, S. U.-S. , Li, S. , and Eastman, J. A. , 1999, “ Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fluids Containing Oxide Nanoparticles,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(2), pp. 280–289. [CrossRef]
Eastman, J. A. , Choi, S. U.-S. , Li, S. , Yu, W. , and Thompson, L. J. , 2001, “ Anomalously Increased Effective Thermal Conductivities of Ethylene Glycol-Based Nanofluids Containing Copper Nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 78(6), pp. 718–720. [CrossRef]
Das, S. K. , Putra, N. , Thiesen, P. , and Roetzel, W. , 2003, “ Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125(4), pp. 567–574. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. U. S. , 1995, “ Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids With Nanoparticles,” Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, D. A. Singer and H. P. Wang, eds., Fed-Vol/MD-vol. 66 ASME, New York, pp. 99–105.
Xuan, Y. , and Roetzel, W. , 2000, “ Conceptions for Heat Transfer Correlation of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43(19), pp. 3701–3707. [CrossRef]
Bolukbasi, A. , and Ciloglu, D. , 2011, “ Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Vertical Cylinder Quenched by SiO2–Water Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50(6), pp. 1013–1021. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , DeWitt, G. , McKrell, T. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L. , 2009, “ On the Quenching of Steel and Zircaloy Spheres in Water-Based Nanofluids With Alumina, Silica and Diamond Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(5), pp. 427–438. [CrossRef]
Ravikumar, S. V. , Jha, J. M. , Haldar, K. , Pal, S. K. , and Chakraborty, S. , 2015, “ Surfactant-Based Cu–Water Nanofluid Spray for Heat Transfer Enhancement of High Temperature Steel Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 137(5), p. 051504. [CrossRef]
Babu, K. , and Kumar, T. S. P. , 2011, “ Effect of CNT Concentration and Agitation on Surface Heat Flux During Quenching in CNT Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(1–3), pp. 106–117. [CrossRef]
Kazakevich, P. V. , Simakin, A. V. , Voronov, V. V. , and Shafeev, G. A. , 2006, “ Laser Induced Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 252(13), pp. 4373–4380. [CrossRef]
Tilaki, R. M. , Iraji Zad, A. , and Mahdavi, S. M. , 2007, “ Size, Composition and Optical Properties of Copper Nanoparticles Prepared by Laser Ablation in Liquids,” Appl. Phys. A, 88(2), pp. 415–419. [CrossRef]
Aye, H. L. , Choopun, S. , and Chairuangsri, T. , 2010, “ Preparation of Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation on Copper Target in Distilled Water,” Adv. Mater. Res., 93–94, pp. 83–86. [CrossRef]
Santillán, J. M. J. , Videla, F. A. , van Raap, M. B. , Schinca, D. C. , and Scaffardi, L. B. , 2013, “ Analysis of the Structure, Configuration, and Sizing of Cu and Cu Oxide Nanoparticles Generated by FS Laser Ablation of Solid Target in Liquids,” J. Appl. Phys., 113, p. 134305. [CrossRef]
White, S. B. , Shih, A. J. , and Pipe, K. P. , 2010, “ Effects of Nanoparticle Layering on Nanofluid and Base Fluid Pool Boiling Heat Transfer From a Horizontal Surface Under Atmospheric Pressure,” J. Appl. Phys., 107, p. 114302. [CrossRef]
Jeon, S. , Roy, P. , Anand, N. K. , and Banerjee, D. , 2010, “ Investigation of Flow Boiling on Nanostructured Surfaces,” ASME Paper No. IHTC14-22926.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Photograph of the IVF Smart Quench system used to perform all the quench tests: (a) 12.5 mm diameter Inconel 600probe containing a k-type thermocouple at its center, (b) furnace, (c) quench tank, and (d) agitator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperature versus time and cooling rate versus temperature plots for quenching tests performed using still de-ionized water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature versus time and cooling rate versus temperature plots comparing the cooling performance of still de-ionized water and still nanofluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

A comparison of cooling data recorded for nanofluid at low, moderate, and high levels of agitation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

A comparison between cooling data recorded for highly agitated de-ionized water and still nanofluid

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In